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    2024年第98卷第3期
    • LI Xutong,ZHANG Yumeng,LIN Xianghong,ZHU Min,ZHAO Wenjin,TANG Lizhou,SHAN Xianren,GAI Zhikun

      2024,98(3):531-540, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15168

      Abstract:

      New discovery of the early Silurian fossil fish Changxingaspis (Xiushuiaspidae, Galeaspida), Changxingaspis nianzhongi sp. nov. and C. gui, are described from the Tataertag Formation in Tarim Basin and the Kangshan Formation in Zhejiang Province, respectively. C. nianzhongi mainly differs from C. gui in the shape of the median dorsal opening that is transverse elliptic with a width/length ratio of about 3.0, the long lateral transverse canals extending to the lateral margin of the headshield, and the second lateral transverse canal with dichotomous branchings. Discovery of C. nianzhongi from the Tataertag Formation and C. gui from the Kangshan Formation provide direct evidence on the specific level for the correlation between these two formations, which further supports the Silurian fish-bearing red beds in northwest Zhejiang belonging to the Silurian Lower Red Beds (LRBs) rather than the Upper Red Beds (URBs). Additionally, as the first record of the Changxingaspis in Tarim Basin, it extends the paleogeographical distribution of this genus from the South China Block to the Tarim Block, providing new evidence to support faunal exchanges between these two blocks and the hypothesis of a united Tarim–South China Block during the early Silurian.

    • ZHANG Qingqing,Wieslaw KRZEMINSKI,Jan SEVCIK,Vladimir BLAGODEROV,Agnieszka SOSZYNSKA,Kornelia SKIBINSKA

      2024,98(3):541-547, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15173

      Abstract:

      A new genus and species, Cretopleciofungivora simpsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the extinct family Pleciofungivoridae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha), is discovered in mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber. Previously, this family was known only from imprints in sedimentary rocks of the Jurassic and the Lower Cretaceous. Discovery of a representative of Pleciofungivoridae in Kachin amber confirms the presence of the family in the Upper Cretaceous. The new species has a unique structure of fore tarsus, with lobed and extended tarsal segments II to IV, a feature hitherto known only in a few species of extant Sciaroidea. Although not particularly rare, the new species is currently known only from female specimens. Possible reasons for this phenomenon, very unusual in Sciaroidea, are briefly discussed, including parthenogenesis as a potentially plausible hypothesis.

    • QIN Xiang,CHEN Xuanhua,SHAO Zhaogang,ZHANG Yiping,WANG Yongchao,LI Bing,SU He,WANG Ye,LIU Kui,HAN Lele

      2024,98(3):548-568, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15157

      Abstract:

      The Tianshan range, a Paleozoic orogenic belt in Central Asia, has undergone multiple phases of tectonic activities characterized by the N–S compression after the early Mesozoic, including the far-field effects of the Cenozoic Indian–Asian collision. However, there are limited reports on the tectonic deformation and initiation of Triassic intracontinental deformation in the Tianshan range. Understanding this structural context is crucial for interpreting the early intracontinental deformation history of the Eurasian continent during the early Mesozoic. Growth strata and syn-tectonic sediments provide a rich source of information on tectonic activities and have been extensively used in the studies of orogenic belts. Based on detail fieldwork conducted in this study, the middle–late Triassic Kelamayi Formation of the northern Kuqa Depression in the southern Tianshan fold-thrust belt has been identified as the typical syn-tectonic growth strata. The youngest detrital zircon component in two lithic sandstone samples from the bottom and top of the Kelamayi growth strata yielded U-Pb ages of 223.4 ± 3.1 and 215.5 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively, indicating that the maximum depositional age of the bottom and top of the Kelamayi growth strata is 226–220 and 218–212 Ma. The geochronological distribution of detrital samples from the Early–Middle Triassic and Late Triassic revealed abrupt changes, suggesting a new source supply resulting from tectonic activation in the Tianshan range. The coupling relationship between the syn-tectonic sedimentation of the Kelamayi Formation and the South Tianshan fold-thrust system provides robust evidence that the Triassic intracontinental deformation of the South Tianshan range began at approximately 226–220 Ma (during the Late Triassic) and ended at approximately 218–212 Ma. These findings provide crucial constraints for understanding the intraplate deformation in the Tianshan range during the Triassic.

    • WU Limin,PENG Touping,FAN Weiming,ZHAO Guochun,GAO Jianfeng,DONG Xiaohan,PENG Shili,MIN Kang,Tin Aung MYINT

      2024,98(3):569-584, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15164

      Abstract:

      Since the Cenozoic, the Tibetan Plateau has experienced large-scale uplift and outgrowth due to the India–Asia collision. However, the mechanism and timing of these tectonic processes still remain debated. Here, using apatite fission track dating and inverse thermal modeling, we explore the mechanism of different phases of rapid cooling for different batholiths and intrusions in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In contrast to previous views, we find that the coeval granitic batholith exposed in the same tectonic zone experienced differential fast uplift in different sites, indicating that the present Tibetan Plateau was the result of differential uplift rather than the entire lithosphere uplift related to lithospheric collapse during Cenozoic times. In addition, we also suggest that the 5–2 Ma mantle-related magmatism should be regarded as the critical trigger for the widely coeval cooling event in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, because it led to the increase in atmospheric CO2 level and a hotter upper crust than before, which are efficient for suddenly fast rock weathering and erosion. Finally, we propose that the current landform of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau was the combined influences of tectonic and climate.

    • TONG Qinlong,QIN Mingkuan,YE Fawang

      2024,98(3):585-601, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15181

      Abstract:

      The Bayingobi basin is located in the middle of Central Asia Orogenic Belt, at the intersection of Paleo-Asian Ocean and Tethys Ocean, as well as the junction of multiple tectonic plates. This unique tectonic setting underpins the basin's intricate history of tectonic activity. To unravel the multifaceted tectono-thermal evolution within the southwestern region of the basin and to elucidate the implications of sandstone-hosted uranium mineralization, granitic and clastic rock samples were collected from the Zongnai Mts. uplift and Yingejing depression, and apatite fission track (AFT) dating and thermal history simulation analysis were performed. AFT dating findings reveal that the apparent ages of all samples fall within the range of 244 Ma to 112 Ma. In particular, the bedrock of the Zongnai Mts. and Jurassic detrital apatite fission tracks have undergone complete annealing, capturing the uplift-cooling age. Meanwhile, the AFT ages of Cretaceous detrital rocks are either equivalent to or notably exceed the age of sedimentary strata, signifying the cooling age of the provenance. A comprehensive examination of AFT ages and palaeocurrent direction analyses suggests that the Cretaceous source in the Tamusu area predominantly originated from the central and southern sectors of the Zongnai Mts. uplift. However, at a certain juncture during the Late Early Cretaceous, the Cretaceous provenance expanded to include the northern part of the Zongnai Mts. uplift. Based on the results of thermal history simulations and previous studies, it is considered that the Tamusu area has undergone four distinct tectonic uplift events since the Late Paleozoic. The first is the Late Permian to Early Triassic (260–240 Ma), which is associated with the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the accretionary orogeny within the Alxa region. The second uplift event took place in the Early Jurassic (190–175 Ma) and corresponded to intraplate orogeny following the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The third uplift event is the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (160–120 Ma), which is linked to the East Asia's position as the convergence center of multiple tectonic plates during this period. The fourth uplift event is linked to the Late Early Cretaceous (112–100 Ma), driven either by the westward subduction of the eastern Pacific plate or the mantle upwelling resulting from the Bangong–Nujiang oceanic lithosphere subduction and slab break-off. The primary stress orientation for the first three tectonic uplift phases approximated a nearly SN direction, while the fourth stage featured a principal stress direction of NW. The fourth tectonic uplift event of the Late Early Cretaceous and basaltic eruption thermal event during this period likely exerted a significant influence on the formation of the Tamusu sandstone-hosted uranium deposit.

    • WANG Cheng,WEI Hantao,LIU Qingquan,YANG Zhao

      2024,98(3):602-616, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15129

      Abstract:

      It is well established that Cretaceous magmatism in the South China Block (SCB) is related to the Paleo-Pacific subduction. However, the starting time and the associated deep crust-mantle processes are still debatable. Mafic dike swarms carry important information on the deep earth (including mantle) geodynamics and geochemical evolution. In the Jiangnan Orogen (South China), there is no information on whether the Mesozoic magmatic activities in this region are also directly related to the Pacific subduction or not. In this study, we present detailed zircon U-Pb geochronological, whole-rock element and Sr-Nd isotope data for Early Cretaceous Tuanshanbei dolerite dikes, and provide new constraints on the condition of the lithospheric mantle and mantle dynamics of the SCB during that time. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating suggests that this dolerite erupted in the Early Cretaceous (~145 Ma). All samples have alkaline geochemical affinities with K2O + Na2O = 3.11–4.04 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.50–0.72, and Mg# = 62.24–65.13. They are enriched in LILE but depleted in HFSE with higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.706896–0.714743) and lower εNd(t) (?2.61 to ?1.67). They have high Nb/U, Nb/La, La/Sm and Rb/Sr, and low La/Nb, La/Ta, Ce/Pb, Ba/Rb, Tb/Yb and Gd/Yb ratios. Such geochemical signatures suggest that the fractional crystallization is obvious but crustal contamination play a negligible role during magmatic evolution. Tuanshanbei dolerite were most likely derived from low-degree (2%–5%) partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing mantle material consisted of ~85% spinel peridotite and ~15% garnet peridotite previously metasomatized by asthenosphere-derived fluids/melts with minor subduction-derived fluids/melts. Slab-rollback generally lead to the upwelling of the hot asthenosphere. The upwelling of asthenosphere consuming the lithospheric mantle by thermo-mechanical-chemical erosion. The lithospheric mantle may have partially melted due to the heating by the upwelling asthenosphere and lithospheric extension. It is inferred that the Tuanshanbei dolerite might be associated with the initial slab rollback and corresponding lithospheric extension occurred potentially at ca. 145 Ma.

    • WANG Yabo,LIU Lei,ZHAO Zengxia,LIU Xijun,HUANG Wenmin

      2024,98(3):617-629, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15136

      Abstract:

      The only occurrence of Lower Triassic silicic volcanic rocks within the South China Block is in the Qinzhou Bay area of Guangxi Province. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that volcanic rocks of the Beisi and Banba formations formed between 248.8 ± 1.6 and 246.5 ± 1.3 Ma, coeval with peraluminous granites of the Qinzhou Bay Granitic Complex. The studied rhyolites and dacites are characterized by high SiO2, K2O, and Al2O3, and low MgO, CaO, and P2O5 contents and are classified as high-K calc-alkaline S-type rocks, with A/CNK = 0.98–1.19. The volcanic rocks are depleted in high ?eld strength elements, e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P, and enriched in large ion lithophile elements, e.g., Rb, K, Sr, and Ba. Although the analyzed volcanic rocks have extremely enriched zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = ?29.1 to ?6.9), source discrimination indicators and high calculated Ti-in-zircon temperatures (798–835°C) reveal that magma derived from enriched lithospheric mantle not only provided a heat source for anatectic melting of the metasedimentary protoliths but was also an endmember component of the S-type silicic magma. The studied early Triassic volcanics are inferred to have formed immediately before closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean in this region, as the associated subduction would have generated an extensional setting in which the mantle-derived upwelling and volcanic activity occurred.

    • XIE Qifeng,DONG Yunpeng,CAI Yuanfeng,ZHAI Mingguo,XIAO Aifang,ZHANG Hong

      2024,98(3):630-640, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15156

      Abstract:

      The magma sources, origins and precise forming ages of the miarolite from Qishan and Kuiqi intrusions are still uncertain. New results reveal that, miarolites from the Qishan and Kuiqi intrusions yield crystallization ages of ~101 and ~98 Ma, and they have a high formation temperature (~910°C) and low oxygen fugacity value, indicating crystallization condition at low pressure in the upper crust with temperature of 678°C. The Qishan and Kuiqi miarolites are characterized by enrichment in SiO2 and high-K alkali, depletion in Ca and Mg, and belong to the high-K weak peraluminous rock series. The samples are enriched in HFSEs (i.e., Ta, Zr and Hf) and LILEs (i.e., Ba, P and Sr), depleted in Ba and Sr with the negative anomaly of Eu. In the primitive mantle normalized trace element spider diagram, the samples show a right-inclined 'seagull-type' pattern, combined the ratios of (La/Yb)N, 10000 × Al/Ga, Rb/Nb and Nb/Ta etc., they were proved to be alkaline A-type granite. Combined the characterize of the trace elements, they were derived from clay-rich source accompanied pelite melting, and subjected to K-feldspar crystallization fractional. The values of εHf(t) and tDM2 are distributed in the range of ?2.8 to 3.3 with ~1.2 Ga, and ?6.0 to 4.0 with ~1.2 Ga, revealing that they were generated from the Mesoproterozoic Cathaysia basement rocks. The comprehensive research reveals the Kuiqi and Qishan intrusions derived from crust-mantle mixing and partial melting of the crust, respectively, resulting from lithospheric extension generated by the Paleo-Pacific Plate subducted into the European–Asian Plate.

    • WANG Qiuyu,CHEN Shouming,ZHANG Hongrui,LI Saisai

      2024,98(3):641-656, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15182

      Abstract:

      High-silica granitoids record the formation and evolution of the continental crust. A new intrusive complex has been recognized among silicic volcanic rocks of the Weixi arc, Southwest China. The intrusions consist of granites, granitic porphyries, and granodiorites. Zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the Weixi granitoids formed at 248–240 Ma and were coeval with silicic volcanic rocks of the Weixi arc. The Weixi granitoids are enriched in Rb, Th, and U, depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and have high light/heavy rare earth element ratios and slightly negative Eu anomalies. The Weixi granitoids have negative εNd(t) values (?9.8 to ?7.8) and negative zircon εHf(t) values (?12.02 to ?5.11). The geochemical and isotopic features suggest the Weixi granitoids were derived by partial melting of ancient crustal material. The Weixi granitoids and silicic volcanic rocks were derived from the same magma by crystal accumulation and melt extraction, respectively, and they record the formation of a continental arc in the central Sanjiang orogenic belt.

    • Kazem KAZEMI,Soroush MODABBERI,Parisa GHARIBNEJAD,XIAO Yilin,Fatemeh SARJOUGHIAN,Ali KANANIAN

      2024,98(3):657-678, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15118

      Abstract:

      The Hesar pluton in the northern Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic arc hosts numerous mafic-microgranular enclaves (MMEs). Whole rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, zircon U-Pb and Sr-Nd isotopes were measured. It is suggested that the rocks are metaluminous (A/CNK = 1.32–1.45), subduction-related I-type calc-alkaline gabbro to diorite with similar mineral assemblages and geochemical signatures. The host rocks yielded an U-Pb crystallization age of 37.3 ± 0.4 Ma for gabbro-diorite. MMEs have relatively low SiO2 contents (52.9–56.6 wt%) and high Mg# (49.8–58.7), probably reflecting a mantle-derived origin. Chondrite- and mantle-normalized trace element patterns are characterized by LREE and LILE enrichment, HREE and HFSE depletion with slight negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.86–1.03). The host rocks yield (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70492–0.70510, positive εNd(t) values of +1.55–+2.06 and TDM2 of 707–736 Ma, which is consistent with the associated mafic microgranular enclaves ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.705014, εNd(t) = +1.75, TDM2 = 729 Ma). All data suggest magma-mixing for enclave and host rock formation, showing a complete equilibration between mixed-mafic and felsic magmas, followed by rapid diffusion. The TDM1(Nd) and TDM2(Nd) model ages and U-Pb dating indicate that the host pluton was produced by partial melting of the lower continental crust and subsequent mixing with injected lithospheric mantle-derived magmas in a pre-collisional setting of Arabian–Eurasian plates. Clinopyroxene composition indicates a crystallization temperature of ~1000°C and a depth of ~9 km.

    • SHU Lei,YANG Renchao,SHEN Kun,YANG Deping,MAO Guangzhou,LI Min,LIU Pengrui,MA Xiaodong

      2024,98(3):679-700, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15145

      Abstract:

      The Wangjiazhuang Cu (-Mo) deposit, located within the Zouping volcanic basin in western Shandong Province, China, is unique in this area for having an economic value. In order to expound the metallogenetic characteristics of this porphyry-like hydrothermal deposit, a detailed fluid inclusion study has been conducted, employing the techniques of representative sampling, fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS analysis of single fluid inclusions, as well as cathode fluorescence spectrometer analysis of host mineral quartz. The deposit contains mainly two types of orebodies, i.e. veinlet-dissemination-stockwork orebodies in the K-Si alteration zone and pegmatitic-quartz sulfide veins above them. In addition, minor breccia ore occurs locally. Four types of fluid inclusions in the deposit and altered quartz monzonite are identified: L-type one- or two-phase aqueous inclusions, V-type vapor-rich inclusions with V/L ratios greater than 50%–90%, D-type multiphase fluid inclusions containing daughter minerals or solids and S-type silicate-bearing fluid inclusions containing mainly muscovite and biotite. Ore petrography and fluid inclusion study has revealed a three-stage mineralization process, driven by magmatic-hydrothermal fluid activity, as follows. Initially, a hydrothermal fluid, separated from the parent magma, infiltrated into the quartz monzonite, resulting in its extensive K-Si alteration, as indicated by silicate-bearing fluid inclusions trapped in altered quartz monzonite. This is followed by the early mineralization, the formation of quartz veinlets and dissemination-stockwork ores. During the main mineralization stage, due to the participation and mixing of meteoric groundwater with magmatic-sourced hydrothermal fluid, the cooling and phase separation caused deposition of metals from the hydrothermal fluids. As a result, the pegmatitic-quartz sulfide-vein ores formed. In the late mineralization stage, decreasing fluid salinity led to the formation of L-type aqueous inclusions and chalcopyrite-sulfosalt ore. Coexistence of V-type and D-type inclusions and their similar homogenization temperatures with different homogenization modes suggest that phase separation or boiling of the ore-forming fluids took place during the early and the main mineralization stages. The formation P-T conditions of S-type inclusions and the early and the main mineralization stages were estimated as ca. 156–182 MPa and 450–650°C, 350–450°C, 18–35 MPa and 280–380°C, 8–15 MPa, respectively, based on the microthermometric data of the fluid inclusions formed at the individual stages.

    • ZHANG Xiaoxu,TANG Juxing,LIN Bin,WANG Qin,HE Liang,YAN Gang,SHAO Rui,WU Qiang,DU Qiu,ZHAXI Pingcuo

      2024,98(3):701-716, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15131

      Abstract:

      Multistage tungsten mineralization was recently discovered in the Mamupu copper-polymetallic deposit in the southern Yulong porphyry copper belt (YPCB), Tibet. This study reports the results of cathodoluminescence, trace element and Sr isotope analyses of Mamupu scheelite samples, undertaken in order to better constrain the mechanism of W mineralization and the sources of the ore-forming fluids. Three different types of scheelite are identified in the Mamupu deposit: scheelite A (Sch A) mainly occurs in breccias during the prograde stage, scheelite B (Sch B) forms in the chlorite-epidote alteration zone in the retrograde stage, while scheelite C (Sch C) occurs in distal quartz sulfide veins. The extremely high Mo content and negative Eu anomaly in Sch A represent high oxygen fugacity in the prograde stage. Compared with ore-related porphyries, Sch A has a similar REE pattern, but with higher ΣREE, more depleted HREE and slightly lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios. These features suggest that Sch A is genetically related to ore-related porphyries, but extensive interaction with carbonate surrounding rocks affects the final REE and Sr isotopic composition. Sch B shows dark (Sch B-I) and light (Sch B-II) domains under CL imaging. From Sch B-I to Sch B-II, LREEs are gradually depleted, with MREEs being gradually enriched. Sch C has the highest LREE/HREE ratio, which indicates that it inherited the geochemical characteristics of fluids after the precipitation of HREE-rich minerals, such as diopside and garnet, in the early prograde stage. The Mo content in Sch B and Sch C gradually decreased, indicating that the oxygen fugacity of the fluids changed from oxidative in the early stages to reductive in the later, the turbulent Eu anomaly in Sch B and Sch C indicating that the Eu anomaly in the Mamupu scheelite is not solely controlled by oxygen fugacity. The extensive interaction of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and carbonate provides the necessary Ca2+ for the precipitation of scheelite in the Mamupu deposit.

    • JIANG Hua,KONG Hua,LIU Biao,TAN Fucheng,QIN Yixue,HUANG Jingang,ZHU Yu

      2024,98(3):717-735, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15177

      Abstract:

      Garnet is a primary mineral in skarn deposits and plays a significant role in recording copious mineralization and metallogenic information. This study systematically investigates the geochemistry and geochronology of garnet and zircon in the Dafang Au-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, which represents prominent gold mineralization in southern Hunan, China. Garnet samples with distinct zoning patterns and compositional variations were identified using various analytical techniques, including Backscattered Electron (BSE) imaging, Cathodoluminescence (CL) response, textural characterization, and analysis of rare-earth elements (REE), major contents, and trace element compositions. The garnet was dated U-Pb dating, which yielded a lower intercept age of 161.06 ± 1.93 Ma. This age is older than the underlying granodiorite porphyry, which has a concordia age of 155.13 ± 0.95 Ma determined by zircon U-Pb dating. These results suggest that the gold mineralization may be related to the concealed granite. Two groups of garnet changed from depleted Al garnet to enriched Al garnet, and the rare earth element (REE) patterns of these groups were converted from light REE (LREE)-enriched and heavy REE (HREE)-depleted with positive europium (Eu) anomalies to medium REE (MREE)-enriched from core to rim zoning. The different REE patterns of garnet in various zones may be attributed to changes in the fluid environment and late superposition alteration. The development of distal skarn in the southern Hunan could be a significant indicator for identifying gold mineralization.

    • DING Gaoming,JI Genyuan,YAN Guolong,XU Yongzhong,WANG Kunming,XIAO Chun,WANG Quanle,GUO Dongbao

      2024,98(3):736-752, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15160

      Abstract:

      Three-dimensional geochemical modeling of ore-forming elements is crucial for predicting deep mineralization. This approach provides key information for the quantitative prediction of deep mineral localization, three-dimensional fine interpolation, analysis of spatial distribution patterns, and extraction of quantitative mineral-seeking markers. The Yechangping molybdenum (Mo) deposit is a significant and extensive porphyry-skarn deposit in the East Qinling–Dabie Mo polymetallic metallogenic belt at the southern margin of the North China Block. Abundant borehole data on ore-forming elements underpin deep geochemical predictions. The methodology includes the following steps: (1) Three-dimensional geological modeling of the deposit was established. (2) Correlation, cluster, and factor analyses post delineation of mineralization stages and determination of mineral generation sequence to identify (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag) and (Mo, W, mfe) assemblages. (3) A three-dimensional geochemical block model was constructed for Mo, W, mfe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ag using the ordinary kriging method, and the variational function was developed. (4) Spatial distribution and enrichment characteristics analysis of ore-forming elements are performed to extract geological information, employing the variogram and w(Cu + Pb + Zn + Ag)/w(Mo + W) as predictive indicators. (5) Identifying the western, northwestern, and southwestern areas of the mine with limited mineralization potential, contrasted by the northeastern and southeastern areas favorable for mineral exploration.

    • Naveed Ur RAHMAN,XIAN Benzhong,FANG Linhao,CHEN Sirui,CHEN Peng,Zaheen ULLAH,WANG Pengyu

      2024,98(3):753-770, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15167

      Abstract:

      The Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) fingerprints global environmental perturbations and biological extinction on land and oceans and is potentially linked to the Wrangellia Large Igneous Province (LIP). However, the correlation between terrestrial environmental changes and Wrangellia volcanism in the Ordos Basin during the CPE remains poorly understood. Records of negative carbon isotopic excursions (NCIEs), mercury (Hg), Hg/TOC, and Hg enrichment factor (HgEF) from oil shales in a large-scale terrestrial Ordos Basin in the Eastern Tethys were correlated with marine and other terrestrial successions. The three significant NCIEs in the study section were consistently correlated with those in the CPE successions of Europe, the UK, and South and North China. The U-Pb geochronology indicates a Ladinian–Carnian age for the Chang 7 Member. A comprehensive overview of the geochronology, NCIE correlation, and previous bio- and chronostratigraphic frameworks shows that the Ladinian–Carnian boundary is located in the lower part of Chang 7 in the Yishicun section. HgEF may be a more reliable proxy for tracing volcanic eruptions than the Hg/TOC ratio because the accumulation rates of TOC content largely vary in terrestrial and marine successions. The records of Hg, Hg/TOC, HgEF, and NCIEs in the Ordos Basin aligned with Carnian successions worldwide and were marked by similar anomalies, indicating a global response to the Wrangellia LIP during the CPE. Anoxia, a warm-humid climate, enhancement of detrital input, and NCIEs are synchronous with the CPE interval in the Ordos Basin, which suggests that the CPE combined with the regional Qinling Orogeny should dominate the enhanced rate of terrigenous input and paleoenvironmental evolution in the Ordos Basin.

    • LI Xin,CHEN Ge,XU Zhimin,LIU Qi,CHEN Tianci,SUN Yajun

      2024,98(3):771-785, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15162

      Abstract:

      Saline aquifers are the most popular waste and CO2 injection and storage reservoirs worldwide. This project proposes that several optimal injection positions should be investigated as hydraulic pressure-focused positions, in order to relieve the high demands of pump performance. The comprehensive indices (Fi) representing the injectivity of different burial depths were obtained by using information entropy, based on the mercury injection experimental data of 13 rock samples. The results demonstrated that the burial depths of No. 4, No. 1 and No. 2 in the Liujiagou Formation were the most suitable positions for hydraulic focused injection, which means the upper 30 m thickness could be regarded as the hydraulic focused range in the saline aquifer with an average thickness of 400 m. In addition, some laboratory experiments and in situ tests were carried out for the purpose of certifying and analyzing results, including SEM, XRD, brittleness index and logging. The results suggested that the rock samples at the No. 4, No. 1 and No. 2 burial depth ranges have loose microstructure, weak cementation, as well as dual pores and fractures. The lithology is mainly quartz and feldspar, but the clay mineral content is high (10%–25%), which is positive for dissolution. The lithology is suitable for hydraulic fracturing to form extended cracks and micro-fissures during high-TDS (total dissolved solids) mine water injection, because of the high brittleness index. Finally, a theoretical and technical framework for high-TDS mine water injection was established, based on operating pilot engineering. Some theoretical defects and drawbacks learned from the field practices were summarized and solutions proposed. The research in this study could provide guidance and a paradigm for the inexpensive treatment of high-TDS mine water by injection and storage.

    • BO Ying,LIU Chenglin,JIAO Pengcheng,Lü Fenglin,ZHANG Hua

      2024,98(3):786-800, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15127

      Abstract:

      Lop Nur is located at the eastmost end of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, Northwestern China. This study reviews the hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of underground brine in Lop Nur, based on analytical data from 429 water samples (mainly brine). It is found that in the NE–SW direction, from the periphery to the Luobei sub-depression, while the hydrochemical type varies from the sodium sulfate subtype (S) to the magnesium sulfate subtype (M), the corresponding brine in the phase diagram transfers from the thenardite phase (Then) area, through the bloedite phase (Blo), epsomite phase (Eps), picromerite phase (Picro), finally reaching the sylvite phase (Syl) area. As for the degree of evolution, the sequence is the periphery < Luobei horizontally and the overlying glauberite brine < the underlying clastic brine vertically. It is concluded that the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of the brine have evidently been affected through the effects of evaporation and altitude, as well as the changes in local water circulation in recent years. Boron and chloride isotopic compositions show that the glauberite brine is formed under more arid conditions than the clastic one. The strontium isotopic composition indicates that the Lop Nur brine primarily originates from surface water; however, deep recharge may also be involved in the evolution of the brine, according to previous noble gas studies. It is confirmed that the brine in Lop Nur has become enriched with potassium prior to halite precipitation over the full course of the salt lake’s evolution. Based on chemical compositions of brine from drillhole LDK01 and previous lithological studies, the evolution of the salt lake can be divided into three stages and it is inferred that the brine in Lop Nur may have undergone at least two significant concentration-dilution periods.

    • WANG Luyao,LIU Kai,MA Yan,ZHANG Yaoyao,TONG Jue,JIA Wuhui,ZHANG Shouchuan,SUN Junliang

      2024,98(3):801-818, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15161

      Abstract:

      Geothermal resources are increasingly gaining attention as a competitive, clean energy source to address the energy crisis and mitigate climate change. The Wugongshan area, situated in the southeast coast geothermal belt of China, is a typical geothermal anomaly and contains abundant medium- and low-temperature geothermal resources. This study employed hydrogeochemical and isotopic techniques to explore the cyclic evolution of geothermal water in the western Wugongshan region, encompassing the recharge origin, water–rock interaction mechanisms, and residence time. The results show that the geothermal water in the western region of Wugongshan is weakly alkaline, with low enthalpy and mineralization levels. The hydrochemistry of geothermal waters is dominated by Na-HCO3 and Na-SO4, while the hydrochemistry types of cold springs are all Na-HCO3. The hydrochemistry types of surface waters and rain waters are Na-HCO3 or Ca-HCO3. The δD and δ18O values reveal that the geothermal waters are recharged by atmospheric precipitation at an altitude between 550.0 and 1218.6 m. Molar ratios of major solutes and isotopic compositions of 87Sr/86Sr underscore the significant role of silicate weathering, dissolution, and cation exchange in controlling geothermal water chemistry. Additionally, geothermal waters experienced varying degrees of mixing with cold water during their ascent. The δ13C values suggest that the primary sources of carbon in the geothermal waters were biogenic and organic. The δ34S value suggests that the sulfates in geothermal water originate from sulfide minerals in the surrounding rock. Age dating using 3H and 14C isotopes suggests that geothermal waters have a residence time exceeding 1 kaBP and undergo a long-distance cycling process.

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    2024年第98卷第3期
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    • 青藏高原东北缘祁连–海原断裂带中段金强河断裂晚第四纪滑动行为

      梁淑敏, 郑文俊, 陈干, 张培震, 张冬丽, 毕海芸, 杨雪, 张逸鹏, 段磊, 卢本添

      Abstract:

      祁连–海原断裂带控制着青藏高原东北缘地区的强震活动。在其中段的金强河断裂是天祝地震空区一条关键的活动断裂,但目前对该断裂的滑动行为认识不足。本文针对沿金强河断裂的水平位移分布,利用WorldView-2立体像对和无人机摄影测量数据,提取断裂沿线高精度的DEM数据,并进行精细的构造地貌解译和水平位错测量。通过断错地貌标志的测量,得到135个位错量和8个位错丛集。同时,利用放射性碳测年方法构建4个典型点断错河流阶地的地貌单元年龄序列,从而通过位错与年龄的关系将位错丛集和地貌单元年龄序列关联起来,并获得金强河断裂全新世的滑动速率在 ~4–12 ka期间为4.8–5.6 mm/a ,在 ~4 ka以来为2.9–4.7 mm/a。最近的三次地震事件的复发间隔约为1000年,形成了一个地震活跃期,揭示着近1500年来缺乏破裂记录的金强河断裂可能具有较高的地震危险性。

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    • 南阿尔金早古生代构造演化:来自茫崖花岗质岩石地球化学、锆石U-Pb和Lu-Hf同位素的证据

      徐楠, 吴才来, 刘和武, 宋帅兵, 张贵生, 郑坤, 高栋

      Abstract:

      南阿尔金造山带是中国西南典型的俯冲造山带,由南阿尔金蛇绿混杂岩带和南阿尔金陆块组成,位于柴达木板块北侧。造山带出露大量早古生代花岗质岩石,但是这些岩石的成因及构造环境尚未查明。本文对茫崖花岗质岩石进行岩石学和地球化学研究,确定岩浆活动的期次,并深入了解南阿尔金造山带的构造演化过程。茫崖花岗质岩浆活动可以划分为三期:494-458Ma,450-436Ma和416-404Ma。根据这些岩石的成岩构造环境,我们认为第一期岩浆活动与南阿尔金洋的北向俯冲有关,形成了大量高价钙碱性、I型花岗质岩石。南阿尔金洋闭合后,柴达木板块开始向南阿尔金陆块碰撞,行了了一系列高价钙碱性、I型花岗岩。第三期岩浆活动形成了大量的造山后A-型花岗岩。

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    • 超微量(80nanomole)硫化物硫酸盐硫同位素的EA-IRMS测试

      武晓珮, 范昌福, 胡斌, 高建飞, 李延河

      Abstract:

      常规EA-IRMS进行硫同位素测试时需硫量大于2 μmol,这限制了该技术在测试含硫量低的样品时的使用。如此大的需硫量是因为He载气携带样品气体在经过元素分析仪(EA)时的流速为~100 mL/min,而气体同位素质谱仪仅允许气体以低流速进入,所以99.7%的混合气体会通过连续流接口排出,以保证混合气体以~0.3 mL/min的流速通过连续流接口。因此,大部分的样品气体会被浪费,样品的利用率仅有0.3%。在本研究中,我们将自主研发的冷冻富集、分离与纯化系统与EA-IRMS联用测试了六种标准物质的硫同位素,并检测该系统的表现。实验结果表明,使用本研究中改进的方法进行硫化物和硫酸盐标准物质的硫同位素测试,得到的硫同位素结果与常规方法一致,即需硫量仅80 nmol即可得到硫同位素测试结果精度 ±0.24‰–±0.76‰ (1σ),与使用吸附柱进行硫同位素测试的方法获得的精度相似。所以,改进后的EA-IRMS可以实现超微量硫化物、硫酸盐的硫同位素测试。此外,本方法也可应用至需样量低至100 nmol的碳、氮和氧同位素分析测试工作中。

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    • 粤北早古生代强过铝质花岗岩及其共生岩石的岩石成因及对广西运动的指示意义:来自元素和Sr-Nd-Hf同位素的制约

      贾小辉, 王晓地, 邱啸飞

      Abstract:

      本文系统报道了粤北地区早古生代强过铝质花岗岩及其共生岩石的锆石U-Pb年代学、主、微量元素及Sr-Nd-Hf同位素组成,探讨其源区特征、岩石成因及构造意义。青州花岗闪长岩为弱-强过铝质,A/CNK= 1.05–1.96。它们具有相对高的初始Sr同位素组成ISr= 0.7087– 0.7148和低的εNd(t)值(-11.2 – -10.1),以及变化的εHf(t)值-13.4– +4.81。与之不同,大帽山花岗闪长岩为准铝质(A/CNK= 0.79– 0.94),ISr= 0.7083– 0.7110, εNd(t)= -7.92– -5.28和εHf(t)= -8.69– -2.06。高寿石英闪长岩为准铝-强过铝质(0.87– 1.24),ISr值和εNd(t)值分别为0.7104– 0.7111和-9.64– -8.63。元素和Sr-Nd-Hf同位素组成结果显示,青州、大帽山和高寿花岗质侵入岩主要分别源自变杂砂岩、英安质岩和角闪石岩的部分熔融。结合前人的研究成果,这些强过铝质花岗岩形成于同造山环境。本文尝试提出一种关于华南早古生代花岗岩的岩石成因及区域地壳重组的新思路。而广西运动动力机制的揭示需要更加广阔的视野和更加丰富的地质证据。

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    2024年第98卷第3期
    • Birendra P. Singh, Kapesa Lokho, Naval Kishore, Nancy Virmani

      2014,88(2):380-393, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A new locality bearing ichnofossils of the Cruziana Assemblage Zone-III from the Mussoorie syncline, Lesser Himalaya, is located in rocks of Member-B of the Dhaulagiri Formation, Tal Group, exposed along the Maldewta-Chhimoli fresh road cut section. The site yielded ichnofossils Bergaueria perata, Cochlichnus anguineus, ?Diplocraterion isp., Dimorphichnus obliquus, diplichnitiform Cruziana bonariensis, Diplichnites gouldi, Glockeria isp., Helminthopsis isp., Monomorphichnus lineatus, Phycodes palmatum, Palaeophycus striatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites montanus, Treptichnus cf. T. pedum, scratch marks and an undetermined worm impression. An Early Cambrian age (Cambrian Series 2) is assigned to the ichnofossil-bearing strata based on the stratigraphic position between the Drepanuroides and Palaeoolenus trilobite zones. A revised Cambrian ichnofossil zonation is presented for the Tal Group of the Mussoorie syncline. Together with their occurrence on rippled surfaces, and the lateral displacement of some trackways (due to current action), a sub-aqueous shallow-marine depositional setting is proposed for the rocks of Member-B.

    • ZHU Song, WU Zhenhan, ZHAO Xitao, LI Jianping, WANG Hua

      2012,86(1):266-283, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Many moraines formed between Daduka and Chibai in the Tsangpo River valley since Middle Pleistocene. A prominent set of lacustrine and alluvial terraces on the valley margin along both the Tsangpo and Nyang Rivers formed during Quaternary glacial epoch demonstrate lakes were created by damming of the river. Research was conducted on the geological environment, contained sediments, spatial distribution, timing, and formation and destruction of these paleolakes. The lacustrine sediments 14C (10537±268 aBP at Linzhi Brick and Tile Factory, 22510±580 aBP and 13925±204 aBP at Bengga, 21096±1466 aBP at Yusong) and a series of ESR (electron spin resonance) ages at Linzhi town and previous data by other experts, paleolakes persisted for 691~505 kaBP middle Pleistocene ice age, 75–40 kaBP the early stage of last glacier, 27–8 kaBP Last Glacier Maximum (LGM), existence time of lakes gradually shorten represents glacial scale and dam moraine supply potential gradually cut down, paleolakes and dam scale also gradually diminished. This article calculated the average lacustrine sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake in LGM was 12.5 mm/a, demonstrates Mount Namjagbarwa uplifted strongly at the same time, the sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake is more larger than that of enclosed lakes of plateau inland shows the climatic variation of Mount Namjagbarwa is more larger and plateau margin uplifted more quicker than plateau inland. This article analyzed formation and decay cause about the Zelunglung glacier on the west flank of Mount Namjagbarwa got into the Tsangpo River valley and blocked it for tectonic and climatic factors. There is a site of blocking the valley from Gega to Chibai. This article according to moraines and lacustrine sediments yielded paleolakes scale: the lowest lake base altitude 2850 m, the highest lake surface altitude 3585 m, 3240 m and 3180 m, area 2885 km2, 820 km2 and 810 km2, lake maximum depth of 735 m, 390 m and 330 m. We disclose the reason that previous experts discovered there were different age moraines dividing line of altitude 3180 m at the entrance of the Tsangpo Grand Canyon is dammed lake erosive decay under altitude 3180 m moraines in the last glacier era covering moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene, top 3180 m in the last glacier moraine remained because ancient dammed lakes didn’t erode it under 3180 m moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene exposed. The reason of the top elevation 3585 m moraines in the middle Pleistocene ice age likes that of altitude 3180 m. There were three times dammed lakes by glacier blocking the Tsangpo River during Quaternary glacial period. During other glacial and interglacial period the Zelunglung glacier often extended the valley but moraine supplemental speed of the dam was smaller than that of fluvial erosion and moraine movement, dam quickly disappeared and didn’t form stable lake.

    • WANG Runfu, XU Shichao, WU Xiaochun, LI Chun, WANG Suozhu

      2013,87(5):1185-1197, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Shansisuchus shansisuchus Young, 1964 was restudied on the basis of a new specimen. Some anatomical features that were either briefly or not described at all in the original study were detailed. The new specimen not only provides further information on the skull anatomy and the vertebral column but also expands the range of the geographical distribution of the taxon. With new information, the diagnosis of S. shansisuchus was emended and its phylogenetic relationships were further analyzed. S. shansisuchus differs from other archosauriforms primarily in the presence of a large subnarial fenestra anterior to the antorbital fenestra, tongue-in-groove articulations between the ascending process of the premaxilla and nasal and between the premaxilla and maxilla, a tall and posterodorsally directed ascending process of the maxilla, a knee-shaped process of the postorbital projecting into the orbit, a broad descending process of squamosal distally well forked and a large, deeply bow-shaped intercentrum tightly anchoring/capping the sharp ventral edges of two neighboring centra together in cervical and at least first eight dorsal vertebrae. With additional information derived from the new specimen, the phylogenetic relationships of S. shansisuchus were reanalyzed; it is closely related to Erythrosuchus-Vjushkovia clade.

    • CHEN Lan1, 2, 3, * , YI Haisheng4, 5, TSAI Louis Loung-Yie2, XU Guiwen1, DA Xuejuan1, LIN Andrew Tien-Shun3

      2013,87(2):540-554, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Biluo Co and Amdo 114 station, northern Tibet, cropping out the Early Toarcian and Middle-Late Tithonian (Jurassic) organic-rich black shales, have been a focus to petroleum geologists in discussing their oil-producing potential. This paper first reports the trace elements and rare earth elements to discuss the paleoenvironments, redox conditions and sedimentary mechanisms of those black shales. Both sections exhibit variation in trace element abundances with concentrations <0.1 ppm to 760 ppm, mostly enriched in V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ba and U. Element ratios of Ni/Co, V/Cr, U/Th and V/(V+Ni) plus U were used to identify redox conditions. The shale-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns are characterized by the flat-shale type with instable Ce anomalies and very weekly positive Eu anomalies. Positive Ceanom values are significant with values varying between –0.064 and 0.029 in Biluo Co, which may be interpreted as release of REE and input of riverine terrestrial matter with rich Ce (resulting in pH change) during the anoxic conditions. In the middle parts of Amdo 114 station, distinct negative Ceanom values are observed (?0.238 to ?0.111) and associated surface water warming were interpreted as being related to a major sea level rise. In contrast, the formation of the black shales in the lower and upper part of the studied succession took place during a cooler (Ceanom values >–0.10), lower surface water productivity, and lower sea-level stage. Thus, we emphasize the role of different factors that control the formation of local and regional black shales. The most important factors are sea-level fluctuations and increasing productivity.

    • CHEN Jitao, LEE Jeong-Hyun

      2014,88(1):260-275, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper reviews the current progress and problems in the study of microbialites and microbial carbonates. Microbialites and microbial carbonates, formed during growth of microbes by their calcification and binding of detrital sediment, have recently become one of the most popular geological topics. They occur throughout the entire geological history, and bear important theoretical and economic significances due to their complex structures and formative processes. Microbialites are in place benthic microbial buildups, whereas microbial carbonates can be classified into two categories: stabilized microbial carbonates (i.e., carbonate microbialites, such as stromatolites and thrombolites) and mobilized microbial carbonates (i.e., microbial carbonate grains, such as oncoids and microbial lumps). Various texture, structures, and morphologies of microbialites and microbial carbonates hamper the systematic description and classification. Moreover, complex calcification pathways and diagenetic modifications further obscure the origin of some microbialites and microbial carbonates. Recent findings of abundant sponge spicules in previously identified “microbialites” challenge the traditional views about the origins of these “microbialites” and their implications to reef evolution. Microbialites and microbial carbonates did not always flourish in the aftermath of extinction events, which, together with other evidences, suggests that they are affected not only by metazoans but also by other geological factors. Their growth, development, and demise are also closely related to sea-level changes, due to their dependence on water depth, clarity, nutrient, and sunlight. Detailed studies on microbialites and microbial carbonates throughout geological history would certainly help understand causes and effects of major geological events as well as the co-evolution of life and environment.

    • SHEN Caizhi, Lü Junchang, LIU Sizhao, Martin KUNDRáT, Stephen L. BRUSATTE, GAO Hailong

      2017,91(3):763-780, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A new troodontid dinosaur, Daliansaurus liaoningensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on a nearly complete specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, China. This well preserved skeleton provides important new details of the anatomy for Liaoning troodontids, and gives new insight into their phylogenetic relationships and evolution. Daliansaurus is distinguished from other troodontids by an enlarged ungual on pedal digit IV, which is approximately the same size as the sickle-shaped second ungual, and is differentiated from other Liaoning troodontids by a number of characters of the skull, manus, pelvis, and hindlimb. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Daliansaurus within a subclade of Liaoning troodontids that also includes Sinovenator, Sinusonasus, and Mei. We erect a name for this group—Sinovenatorinae—and argue that it reflects a localized radiation of small-bodied troodontids in the Early Cretaceous of eastern Asia, similar to previously recognized radiations of Liaoning dromaeosaurids and avialans. As more Liaoning theropods are discovered, it is becoming apparent that small, feathered paravians were particularly diverse during the Early Cretaceous, and future work is needed to clarify how this diversity arose, which species coexisted, and how these numerous species partitioned niches.

    • Richard H. SILLITOE

      2014,88(z2):597-598, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Please refer to the attachment(s) for more details

    • DU Chunguo, WANG Jianjun, ZHANG Jun, WANG Ping, XUE Mei, ZHOU Huayao

      2014,88(3):865-877, DOI:

      Abstract:

      On the basis of field observations, microscopic thin-sections and laboratory data analysis of ten faults in Xuanhan County area, northeastern Sichuan Basin, central China, the internal and megascopic structures and tectonite development characteristics are mainly controlled by the geomechanical quality in brittle formation of the Changxing-Feixianguan Formation. The fluid transportation performance difference between the faults formed by different geomechanics or different structural parts of the same fault are controlled by the megascopic structure and tectonite development characteristics. For instance, the extension fault structure consists of a tectonite breccia zone and an extension fracture zone. Good fluid transportation performance zones are the extension fracture zone adjacent to the tectonite breccia zone and the breccia zone formed at the early evolutionary stage. The typical compression fault structure consists of a boulder-clay zone or zones of grinding gravel rock, compression foliation, tectonite lens, and dense fracture development. The dense fracture development zone is the best fluid transporting area at a certain scale of the compression fault, and then the lens, grinding gravel rock zone and compression foliation zones are the worst areas for hydrocarbon migration. The typical tensor-shear fault with a certain scale can be divided into boulder-clay or grinding gravel rock zones of the fault, as well as a pinnate fractures zone and a derivative fractures zone. The grinding gravel rock zone is the worst one for fluid transportation. Because of the fracture mesh connectivity and better penetration ability, the pinnate fractures zone provides the dominant pathway for hydrocarbon vertical migration along the tensor-shear fault.

    • MA Shengming, ZHU Lixin, LIU Chongmin, XI Mingjie, TANG Shixin

      2013,87(3):843-857, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper discusses the enrichment and depletion regularities for porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposits in different regions and varied deposit genetic types in the same area, taking three porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposits (i.e., the Chengmenshan in Jiangxi, Wunugetushan in Inner Mongolia, Baishantang in Gansu) and two copper deposits in Gansu Province (the Huitongshan skarn deposit and Gongpoquan composite deposit) as case studies. The results show that porphyry Cu-Mo deposits or skarn copper deposits include both enrichment of the ore-forming elements and associated elements, and depletion of some lithophile dispersed elements, rare earth elements (REE) and some major elements. And the depleted elements vary with deposits, having generality and their own features. On a deposit scale, the positive anomalies of enriched elements and negative anomalies of depleted elements follow in a sequence to comprise regular anomaly models of spatial structures. The exploration in the Tongchang deposit in Jiangxi and Huitongshan deposit in Gansu suggests that anomaly models play a key role in the identification of mineral occurrences and deposits compared to one single enriched element anomaly. And the anomaly models exert a critical effect on the optimization of prospecting targets and their potential evaluation.

    • Lü Junchang

      2010,84(2):241-246, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A new boreopterid pterosaur: Zhenyuanopterus longirostris gen. et sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning is erected, based on the complete skeleton with a skull and lower jaws preserved. It is characterized by: a large boreopterid pterosaur with a high number of teeth, where the anterior teeth are much larger than posterior ones; the length of the dorsal + sacral vertebrae is nearly half the length of the skull; ratio of the length of the humerus to metacarpal IV is approximately 91% and the, humerus, femur and third wing phalanx are all equal in length and the feet are specially small. It represents the largest boroepterid pterosaur discovered from western Liaoning and its surrounding areas so far

    • WANG Sufen, ZHANG Tingshan, ZHOU Jixian, HU Yu

      2017,91(1):320-340, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The distribution characteristics of the oil-water contact are the basis for the reservoir exploration and development and reserves evaluation. The reservoir with a tilted oil-water contact has a unique formation mechanism, and the understanding of its distribution and formation mechanism will directly affect the evaluations for the reservoir type, well deployment, selection of well pattern and type, determination of test section, and reserves evaluation. Based on the analysis of reservoir characteristics, petrophysical properties and geological structure in 40 reservoirs worldwide with tilted oil-water contacts, the progress of the research on the formation mechanisms of titled oil-water contacts is summarized in terms of the hydrodynamic conditions, reservoir heterogeneity, neotectonic movement and oil-gas exploitation. According to the formation mechanism of tilted oil-water contacts and the needs of exploration research, different aspects of research methods are summarized and classified, such as the calculation of equipotential surfaces for oil and water in the formation, analysis of formation pressure and analysis of reservoir physical properties and so on. Based upon statistical analysis, it is suggested that the degree of the inclination of the oil-water contact be divided based on the dip of oil-water contact (DipTOWC). The tilted oil-water contact is divided into three categories: large dip (DipTOWC≥55 m/km), medium dip (4 m/km≤DipTOWC<55 m/km), and small dip (DipTOWC<4 m/km). The classification and evaluation method can be combined with structure amplitude and reservoir property. The formation mechanism of domestic and international reservoirs with tilted oil-water contacts are summarized in this paper, which have important significance in guiding the exploration and development of the oilfield with tilted oil-water contacts, reserves evaluation, and well deployment.

    • Mahboobeh JAMSHIDI BADR, Fariborz MASOUDI, Alan S. COLLINS, Ali SORBI

      2012,86(1):48-64, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Soursat metamorphic complex (SMC) in northwestern Iran is part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt. The complex is composed of different metamorphic and plutonic rocks, but is dominated by metapelites composed of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolite, cordierite, and andalusite. Porphyroblasts in schists have the same fabric, and three stages of schistosity are present. The internal schistosity (Sn) inclusion trails are also offset by conjugate sets of extensional schistosity (Sn+1) and a second (Sn+2) that crenulates (Sn+1). Polyphase metamorphisms are present in the complex. Garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and fibrolite assemblage preserves conditions during the M1 metamorphic event. This assemblage yields a P–t estimate of 645±11°C and 6.5±0.5 kbar. Other samples of the central part of SMC contain cordierite and andalusite (M2) overgrowth that yields a P–t estimate of 532±33°C and 2.1±1.1 kbar.

    • ZHENG Yadong, ZHANG Qing, HOU Quanlin

      2015,89(4):1133-1152, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The essential difference in the formation of conjugate shear zones in brittle and ductile deformation is that the intersection angle between brittle conjugate faults in the contractional quadrants is acute (usually ~60°) whereas the angle between conjugate ductile shear zones is obtuse (usually 110°). The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, an experimentally validated empirical relationship, is commonly applied for interpreting the stress directions based on the orientation of the brittle shear fractures. However, the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion fails to explain the formation of the low-angle normal fault, high-angle reverse fault, and the conjugate strike-slip fault with an obtuse angle in the σ1 direction. Although it is ten years since the Maximum-Effective-Moment (MEM) criterion was first proposed, and increasingly solid evidence in support of it has been obtained from both observed examples in nature and laboratory experiments, it is not yet a commonly accepted model to use to interpret these anti-Mohr-Coulomb features that are widely observed in the natural world. The deformational behavior of rock depends on its intrinsic mechanical properties and external factors such as applied stresses, strain rates, and temperature conditions related to crustal depths. The occurrence of conjugate shear features with obtuse angles of ~110° in the contractional direction on different scales and at different crustal levels are consistent with the prediction of the MEM criterion, therefore ~110° is a reliable indicator for deformation localization that occurred at medium-low strain rates at any crustal levels. Since the strain–rate is variable through time in nature, brittle, ductile, and plastic features may appear within the same rock.

    • CHI Guoxiang1, *, CHU Haixia1, Ryan SCOTT1, CHOU I-Ming2

      2014,88(4):1169-1182, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Raman peaks of various hydrates in the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 system have been previously identified, but a quantitative relationship between the Raman peaks and XNaCl (i.e., NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2)) has not been established, mainly due to the difficulty to freeze the solutions. This problem was solved by adding alumina powder to the solutions to facilitate nucleation of crystals. Cryogenic (-185oC) Raman spectroscopic studies of alumina-spiced solutions indicate that XNaCl is linearly correlated with the total peak area fraction of hydrohalite. Capsules of solutions made from silica capillary were prepared to simulate fluid inclusions. Most of these artificial fluid inclusions could not be totally frozen even at temperatures as low as -185oC, and the total peak area fraction of hydrohalite is not correlated linearly with XNaCl. However, the degree of deviation (DXNaCl) from the linear correlation established earlier is related to the amount of residual solution, which is reflected by the ratio (r) of the baseline “bump” area, resulting from the interstitial unfrozen brine near 3435 cm-1, and the total hydrate peak area between 3350 and 3600 cm-1. A linear correlation between DXNaCl and r is established to estimate XNaCl from cryogenic Raman spectroscopic analysis for fluid inclusions.

    • LI Jianjun, Martin G. LOCKLEY, ZHANG Yuguang, HU Songmei, MATSUKAWA Masaki, BAI Zhiqiang

      2012,86(1):1-10, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A large track site with multiple, well-preserved trackways of an Early Jurassic quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur is the first report of Moyenisauripus-like trackways from Asia, herein named Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum. The tracks occur in a clastic fluvial sequence in the Fuxian Formation in Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province, which is in the same general region as the discovery site of Sinoichnites,the first dinosaur track reported from China. Based on size and morphology, it is likely that Sinoichnites, which is now lost, also represents an ornithischian. The Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum trackways show two modes of preservation: the first representing deeper tracks, with sediment rims, results in Deltapodus-like tracks, with indistinct pes digit traces and sub-circular manus traces, the second produces Moyenosauripus-like tracks, with clear tridactyl and pentadactyl digit traces in the pes and manus respectively. Thus the Shenmu trackways play a key role in resolving globally significant ichnotaxonomic problems surrounding the nomenclature of Sinoichnites, Moyenosauripus, Deltapodus and other named (Ravatichnus) and unnamed trackways from Asia, Africa and Europe. In addition they shed important light on the paleogeographical and paleoecological distribution of quadrupedal ornithischians in the Early Mesozoic. The track site has been the focus of a major excavation to transfer the trackways from their original remote location to the new Shenmu Museum, in Shenmu City. Other tracksites in the area which reveal Anomoepus, Grallator and the Deltapodus morphotype, together with Shenmuichnus and plant fossil evidence, suggest an Early Jurassic age for the tracksite.

    • DU Jianjun, LI Dunpeng, WANG Yufang, MA Yinsheng

      2017,91(1):76-92, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Weihe Graben is not only an important Cenozoic fault basin in China but also a significant active seismic zone. The Huashan piedmont fault is an important active fault on the southeast side of the Weihe Graben and has been highly active since the Cenozoic. The well–known Great Huaxian County Earthquake of 1556 occurred on the Huashan piedmont fault. This earthquake, which claimed the lives of approximately 830000 people, is one of the few large earthquakes known to have occurred on a high–angle normal fault. The Huashan piedmont fault is a typical active normal fault that can be used to study tectonic activity and the associated hazards. In this study, the types and characteristics of late Quaternary deformation along this fault are discussed from geological investigations, historical research and comprehensive analysis. On the basis of its characteristics and activity, the fault can be divided into three sections, namely eastern, central and western. The eastern and western sections display normal slip. Intense deformation has occurred along the two sections during the Quaternary; however, no deformation has occurred during the Holocene. The central section has experienced significant high–angle normal fault activity during the Quaternary, including the Holocene. Holocene alluvial fans and loess cut by the fault have been identified at the mouths of many stream valleys of the Huashan Mountains along the central section of the Huashan piedmont fault zone. Of the three sections of the Huashan piedmont fault, the central section is the most active and was very active during the late Quaternary. The rate of normal dip–slip was 1.67–2.71±0.11 mm/a in the Holocene and 0.61±0.15 mm/a during the Mid–Late Pleistocene. As is typical of normal faults, the late Quaternary activity of the Huashan piedmont fault has produced a set of disasters, which include frequent earthquakes, collapses, landslides, mudslides and ground fissures. Ground fissures mainly occur on the hanging–wall of the Huashan piedmont fault, with landslides, collapses and mudslides occurring on the footwall.

    • K.V. BADHE, H.S. PANDALAI

      2015,89(3):715-725, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Re-equilibration of fluid inclusions in crystals takes place by loss or gain of solvents and solutes from fluid inclusions and by changes in their volumes. Volume change of fluid inclusions are primarily dictated by elastic properties and available slip planes of host crystals. In the present study, the phase-behavior of fluids entrapped in co-precipitated calcite and barite is studied. While calcite contains only biphase fluid inclusions, barite has predominantly monophase fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and leachate analysis are used to establish the nature of entrapped fluids and entrapment temperature is substantiated through independent sulfur isotope geothermometry using coexisting barite and pyrite. Phase transitions in the monophase fluid inclusions in barite are explained in terms of over-pressuring of fluids in these fluid inclusions relative to fluids entrapped in calcite owing to the low bulk modulus of barite.

    • ZHANG Gang, WANG Xuben, FANG Hui, GUO Ziming, ZHANG Zhaobin, LUO Wei, CAI Xuelin, LI Jun, LI Zhong, WU Xing

      2015,89(2):531-541, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Panxi region is located in the frontal zone of positive squeezing subduction and side squeezing shearing between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) and broadband magnetotelluric (MT) techniques are both used to study the deep electrical conductivity structure in this region; magnetic and gravity surveys are also performed along the profile. According to the 2-D resistivity model along the Yanyuan-Yongshan profile, a high-conductivity layer (HCL) exists widely in the crust, and a high-resistivity block (HRB) exists widely in the upper mantle in general, as seen by the fact that a large HCL exists from the western Jinpingshan tectonic zone to the eastern Mabian tectonic zone in the crust, while the HRB found in the Panxi tectonic zone is of abnormally high resistivity in that background compared to both sides of Panxi tectonic zone. In addition, the gravity and magnetic field anomalies are of high value. Combined with geological data, the results indicate that there probably exists basic or ultrabasic rock with a large thickness in the lithosphere in the Panxi axial region, which indicates that fracture activity once occurred in the lithosphere. As a result, we can infer that the high-resistivity zone in the Panxi lithosphere is the eruption channel for Permian Emeishan basalt and the accumulation channel for basic and ultrabasic rock. The seismic sources along the profile are counted according to seismic record data. The results indicate that the most violent earthquake sources are located at the binding site of the HRB and the HCL, where the tectonic activity zone is generally acknowledged to be; however, the earthquakes occurring in the HCL are not so violent, which reflects the fact that the HCL is a plastic layer, and the fracture threshold of a plastic layer is low generally, making high stress difficult to accumulate but easy to release in the layer. As a result, a higher number of smaller earthquakes occurred in the HCL at Daliangshan tectonic zone, and violent earthquakes occurred at the binding site of high- and low-resistivity blocks at the Panxi tectonic zone.

    • 2021,95(3):1056-1056, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14310

      Abstract:

    主编 :侯增谦

    主管单位 :中国科学技术协会

    主办单位 :中国地质学会

    创刊 :1922年

    国际标准刊号 :ISSN 1000-9515

    国内统一刊号 :CN 11-2001

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