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    Volume 98,2024 Issue 2
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    • Late Quaternary Slip Behavior of the Jinqianghe Fault in the Middle Qilian–Haiyuan Fault Zone, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

      LIANG Shumin, ZHENG Wenjun, CHEN Gan, ZHANG Peizhen, ZHANG Dongli, BI Haiyun, YANG Xue, ZHANG Yipeng, DUAN Lei, LU Bentian

      Abstract:

      The Qilian–Haiyuan fault zone in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau has been the source of strong earthquakes in the region. In its middle segment, the Jinqianghe fault is an important active fault within the Tianzhu seismic gap; however, little is known about its slip behavior. To present a new horizontal displacement distribution along this fault, we used WorldView-2 stereo pairs and unmanned aerial vehicle-based photogrammetry to construct digital elevation models to obtain a detailed tectono-geomorphic interpretation and geomorphic offsets. The offset marker measurements yielded 135 geomorphic displacements and 8 offset clusters. Radiocarbon dating was used to establish the regional age sequence of the geomorphic units in offset fluvial terraces at four study sites. The displacements and ages linked the offset clusters with the geomorphic unit sequence; the Holocene strike-slip rate of the Jinqianghe fault was estimated to 4.8–5.6 mm/a at ~4–12 ka and 2.9–4.7 mm/a from ~4 ka. Three recent earthquakes (with a recurrence interval of ~1000 years) represent an active seismic period, revealing the potential seismic hazard along this fault because it has not ruptured in the last 1500 years.

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    • The Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution of the South Altun Orogenic Belt: Insights from Geochemical, Zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf Data from Granitic Rocks of the Mangya Area, NW China

      xunan, Wu Cailai, Liu Hewu, Song Shuaibing, Zhang Guisheng, Zheng Kun, Gao Dong

      Abstract:

      The South Altun is a significant structural unit within the Altun Orogenic Belt in northwestern China. In this paper, we combine petrological and geochemical analyses with zircon LA–ICP–MS U–Pb and Lu–Hf data from the Mangya plutons, to understand the Paleozoic tectonic history of the South Altun Orogenic Belt. The Paleozoic magmatic events that formed the Mangya granitic rocks are divided into three episodes: 494–458 Ma; 450–436 Ma; and 416–404 Ma. We propose that the 484–458 Ma plutons record large-scale magmatic events associated with the northward subduction of the oceanic crust of the South Altun Ocean. Subduction-related magmatism produced voluminous high–K calc–alkaline series, high Sr/Y granitic rocks. After closure of the South Altun Ocean, collision of the Qaidam Block with the South Altun Continental Block from 450–436 Ma was driven by slab drag, and high–K calc–alkaline series, I-type granites were produced. Eventually, the subducted oceanic crust delaminated, and the 416–404 Ma A-type granites formed in a post–orogenic extensional environment.

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    • Measurements of Sulfur Isotope Composition on Ultrasmall (80 nanomole) Sulfide and Sulfate Samples by EA-IRMS

      WU Xiaopei, FAN Changfu*, HU Bin*, GAO Jianfei, LI Yanhe

      Abstract:

      The traditional method for sulfur isotope measurement using EA-IRMS commonly requires sulfur content greater than 2 μmol. Such large sample size limits its application to low-S materials., and is mainly due to the ineffective utilization of sample gas, almost 99.7% of which is discarded with carrier gas through the split port of continuous-flow interface. A modified EA-IRMS system with a gas chromatographic (GC) column and a custom-built cryogenic concentration device is used in this study. We measured six reference materials to test the performance of this method. The results were consistent with those obtained through traditional EA-IRMS. Precisions ranging from ±0.24‰–±0.76‰ (1σ) can be obtained with samples equivalent to ~80 nmol sulfur, which were similar to an alternative method using absorption column. Our improved method is a powerful tool for sulfur isotope measurement in ultrasmall sulfide and sulfate samples, and can be further applied to carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of samples at about 100 nmol level.

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    • Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Kwangsian orogen: Constrains from geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the early Paleozoic peraluminous granites and coexisting rocks in Northern Guangdong, SE China

      Xiaohui Jia, Xiaodi Wang, Xiaofei Qiu

      Abstract:

      This paper presents whole–rock major and trace elemental and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions, and zircon U–Pb geochronological data of the peraluminous granitic intrusion and coexisting granitiod rocks in the northern Guangdong province, South China, in order to investigate their source composition, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The Qingzhou granodiorites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with A/CNK values of 1.05–1.96. They have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (ISr= 0.7087– 0.7148), low εNd(t) values (-11.2 to -10.1), and varied zircon εHf(t) values of -13.4 to +4.81. By contrast, the Damaoshan granodiorites are metaluminous (A/CNK= 0.79– 0.94) in composition, with ISr values of 0.7083 to 0.7110, εNd(t) values of -7.92 to -5.28 and zircon εHf(t) values of -8.69 to -2.06. The Gaoshou quartz diorites are metaluminous–peraluminous with A/CNK of 0.87– 1.24. Their ISr values rang from 0.7104 to 0.7111 and εNd(t) values from -9.64 to -8.63. Geochemical data and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope compositions indicate that the Qingzhou, Damaoshan and Gaoshou intrusions are mainly derived from partial melting of metagreywackes, tonalitic rocks and amphibolites, respectively. Combined with the previous studies, these prealuminous granites formed in syn–orogen compression environment. In this paper, we test to provide a new way of thinking for the petrogenesis of the early Paleozoic granites in South China Block, and the regional crust restructure. A broader vision and more geological evidences are required to reveal the triggering factor of the Kwangsian orogen.

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    Volume 98,2024 Issue 2
    • Birendra P. Singh, Kapesa Lokho, Naval Kishore, Nancy Virmani

      2014,88(2):380-393, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A new locality bearing ichnofossils of the Cruziana Assemblage Zone-III from the Mussoorie syncline, Lesser Himalaya, is located in rocks of Member-B of the Dhaulagiri Formation, Tal Group, exposed along the Maldewta-Chhimoli fresh road cut section. The site yielded ichnofossils Bergaueria perata, Cochlichnus anguineus, ?Diplocraterion isp., Dimorphichnus obliquus, diplichnitiform Cruziana bonariensis, Diplichnites gouldi, Glockeria isp., Helminthopsis isp., Monomorphichnus lineatus, Phycodes palmatum, Palaeophycus striatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites montanus, Treptichnus cf. T. pedum, scratch marks and an undetermined worm impression. An Early Cambrian age (Cambrian Series 2) is assigned to the ichnofossil-bearing strata based on the stratigraphic position between the Drepanuroides and Palaeoolenus trilobite zones. A revised Cambrian ichnofossil zonation is presented for the Tal Group of the Mussoorie syncline. Together with their occurrence on rippled surfaces, and the lateral displacement of some trackways (due to current action), a sub-aqueous shallow-marine depositional setting is proposed for the rocks of Member-B.

    • ZHU Song, WU Zhenhan, ZHAO Xitao, LI Jianping, WANG Hua

      2012,86(1):266-283, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Many moraines formed between Daduka and Chibai in the Tsangpo River valley since Middle Pleistocene. A prominent set of lacustrine and alluvial terraces on the valley margin along both the Tsangpo and Nyang Rivers formed during Quaternary glacial epoch demonstrate lakes were created by damming of the river. Research was conducted on the geological environment, contained sediments, spatial distribution, timing, and formation and destruction of these paleolakes. The lacustrine sediments 14C (10537±268 aBP at Linzhi Brick and Tile Factory, 22510±580 aBP and 13925±204 aBP at Bengga, 21096±1466 aBP at Yusong) and a series of ESR (electron spin resonance) ages at Linzhi town and previous data by other experts, paleolakes persisted for 691~505 kaBP middle Pleistocene ice age, 75–40 kaBP the early stage of last glacier, 27–8 kaBP Last Glacier Maximum (LGM), existence time of lakes gradually shorten represents glacial scale and dam moraine supply potential gradually cut down, paleolakes and dam scale also gradually diminished. This article calculated the average lacustrine sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake in LGM was 12.5 mm/a, demonstrates Mount Namjagbarwa uplifted strongly at the same time, the sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake is more larger than that of enclosed lakes of plateau inland shows the climatic variation of Mount Namjagbarwa is more larger and plateau margin uplifted more quicker than plateau inland. This article analyzed formation and decay cause about the Zelunglung glacier on the west flank of Mount Namjagbarwa got into the Tsangpo River valley and blocked it for tectonic and climatic factors. There is a site of blocking the valley from Gega to Chibai. This article according to moraines and lacustrine sediments yielded paleolakes scale: the lowest lake base altitude 2850 m, the highest lake surface altitude 3585 m, 3240 m and 3180 m, area 2885 km2, 820 km2 and 810 km2, lake maximum depth of 735 m, 390 m and 330 m. We disclose the reason that previous experts discovered there were different age moraines dividing line of altitude 3180 m at the entrance of the Tsangpo Grand Canyon is dammed lake erosive decay under altitude 3180 m moraines in the last glacier era covering moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene, top 3180 m in the last glacier moraine remained because ancient dammed lakes didn’t erode it under 3180 m moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene exposed. The reason of the top elevation 3585 m moraines in the middle Pleistocene ice age likes that of altitude 3180 m. There were three times dammed lakes by glacier blocking the Tsangpo River during Quaternary glacial period. During other glacial and interglacial period the Zelunglung glacier often extended the valley but moraine supplemental speed of the dam was smaller than that of fluvial erosion and moraine movement, dam quickly disappeared and didn’t form stable lake.

    • WANG Runfu, XU Shichao, WU Xiaochun, LI Chun, WANG Suozhu

      2013,87(5):1185-1197, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Shansisuchus shansisuchus Young, 1964 was restudied on the basis of a new specimen. Some anatomical features that were either briefly or not described at all in the original study were detailed. The new specimen not only provides further information on the skull anatomy and the vertebral column but also expands the range of the geographical distribution of the taxon. With new information, the diagnosis of S. shansisuchus was emended and its phylogenetic relationships were further analyzed. S. shansisuchus differs from other archosauriforms primarily in the presence of a large subnarial fenestra anterior to the antorbital fenestra, tongue-in-groove articulations between the ascending process of the premaxilla and nasal and between the premaxilla and maxilla, a tall and posterodorsally directed ascending process of the maxilla, a knee-shaped process of the postorbital projecting into the orbit, a broad descending process of squamosal distally well forked and a large, deeply bow-shaped intercentrum tightly anchoring/capping the sharp ventral edges of two neighboring centra together in cervical and at least first eight dorsal vertebrae. With additional information derived from the new specimen, the phylogenetic relationships of S. shansisuchus were reanalyzed; it is closely related to Erythrosuchus-Vjushkovia clade.

    • CHEN Lan1, 2, 3, * , YI Haisheng4, 5, TSAI Louis Loung-Yie2, XU Guiwen1, DA Xuejuan1, LIN Andrew Tien-Shun3

      2013,87(2):540-554, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Biluo Co and Amdo 114 station, northern Tibet, cropping out the Early Toarcian and Middle-Late Tithonian (Jurassic) organic-rich black shales, have been a focus to petroleum geologists in discussing their oil-producing potential. This paper first reports the trace elements and rare earth elements to discuss the paleoenvironments, redox conditions and sedimentary mechanisms of those black shales. Both sections exhibit variation in trace element abundances with concentrations <0.1 ppm to 760 ppm, mostly enriched in V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ba and U. Element ratios of Ni/Co, V/Cr, U/Th and V/(V+Ni) plus U were used to identify redox conditions. The shale-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns are characterized by the flat-shale type with instable Ce anomalies and very weekly positive Eu anomalies. Positive Ceanom values are significant with values varying between –0.064 and 0.029 in Biluo Co, which may be interpreted as release of REE and input of riverine terrestrial matter with rich Ce (resulting in pH change) during the anoxic conditions. In the middle parts of Amdo 114 station, distinct negative Ceanom values are observed (?0.238 to ?0.111) and associated surface water warming were interpreted as being related to a major sea level rise. In contrast, the formation of the black shales in the lower and upper part of the studied succession took place during a cooler (Ceanom values >–0.10), lower surface water productivity, and lower sea-level stage. Thus, we emphasize the role of different factors that control the formation of local and regional black shales. The most important factors are sea-level fluctuations and increasing productivity.

    • CHEN Jitao, LEE Jeong-Hyun

      2014,88(1):260-275, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper reviews the current progress and problems in the study of microbialites and microbial carbonates. Microbialites and microbial carbonates, formed during growth of microbes by their calcification and binding of detrital sediment, have recently become one of the most popular geological topics. They occur throughout the entire geological history, and bear important theoretical and economic significances due to their complex structures and formative processes. Microbialites are in place benthic microbial buildups, whereas microbial carbonates can be classified into two categories: stabilized microbial carbonates (i.e., carbonate microbialites, such as stromatolites and thrombolites) and mobilized microbial carbonates (i.e., microbial carbonate grains, such as oncoids and microbial lumps). Various texture, structures, and morphologies of microbialites and microbial carbonates hamper the systematic description and classification. Moreover, complex calcification pathways and diagenetic modifications further obscure the origin of some microbialites and microbial carbonates. Recent findings of abundant sponge spicules in previously identified “microbialites” challenge the traditional views about the origins of these “microbialites” and their implications to reef evolution. Microbialites and microbial carbonates did not always flourish in the aftermath of extinction events, which, together with other evidences, suggests that they are affected not only by metazoans but also by other geological factors. Their growth, development, and demise are also closely related to sea-level changes, due to their dependence on water depth, clarity, nutrient, and sunlight. Detailed studies on microbialites and microbial carbonates throughout geological history would certainly help understand causes and effects of major geological events as well as the co-evolution of life and environment.

    • SHEN Caizhi, Lü Junchang, LIU Sizhao, Martin KUNDRáT, Stephen L. BRUSATTE, GAO Hailong

      2017,91(3):763-780, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A new troodontid dinosaur, Daliansaurus liaoningensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on a nearly complete specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, China. This well preserved skeleton provides important new details of the anatomy for Liaoning troodontids, and gives new insight into their phylogenetic relationships and evolution. Daliansaurus is distinguished from other troodontids by an enlarged ungual on pedal digit IV, which is approximately the same size as the sickle-shaped second ungual, and is differentiated from other Liaoning troodontids by a number of characters of the skull, manus, pelvis, and hindlimb. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Daliansaurus within a subclade of Liaoning troodontids that also includes Sinovenator, Sinusonasus, and Mei. We erect a name for this group—Sinovenatorinae—and argue that it reflects a localized radiation of small-bodied troodontids in the Early Cretaceous of eastern Asia, similar to previously recognized radiations of Liaoning dromaeosaurids and avialans. As more Liaoning theropods are discovered, it is becoming apparent that small, feathered paravians were particularly diverse during the Early Cretaceous, and future work is needed to clarify how this diversity arose, which species coexisted, and how these numerous species partitioned niches.

    • Richard H. SILLITOE

      2014,88(z2):597-598, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Please refer to the attachment(s) for more details

    • DU Chunguo, WANG Jianjun, ZHANG Jun, WANG Ping, XUE Mei, ZHOU Huayao

      2014,88(3):865-877, DOI:

      Abstract:

      On the basis of field observations, microscopic thin-sections and laboratory data analysis of ten faults in Xuanhan County area, northeastern Sichuan Basin, central China, the internal and megascopic structures and tectonite development characteristics are mainly controlled by the geomechanical quality in brittle formation of the Changxing-Feixianguan Formation. The fluid transportation performance difference between the faults formed by different geomechanics or different structural parts of the same fault are controlled by the megascopic structure and tectonite development characteristics. For instance, the extension fault structure consists of a tectonite breccia zone and an extension fracture zone. Good fluid transportation performance zones are the extension fracture zone adjacent to the tectonite breccia zone and the breccia zone formed at the early evolutionary stage. The typical compression fault structure consists of a boulder-clay zone or zones of grinding gravel rock, compression foliation, tectonite lens, and dense fracture development. The dense fracture development zone is the best fluid transporting area at a certain scale of the compression fault, and then the lens, grinding gravel rock zone and compression foliation zones are the worst areas for hydrocarbon migration. The typical tensor-shear fault with a certain scale can be divided into boulder-clay or grinding gravel rock zones of the fault, as well as a pinnate fractures zone and a derivative fractures zone. The grinding gravel rock zone is the worst one for fluid transportation. Because of the fracture mesh connectivity and better penetration ability, the pinnate fractures zone provides the dominant pathway for hydrocarbon vertical migration along the tensor-shear fault.

    • MA Shengming, ZHU Lixin, LIU Chongmin, XI Mingjie, TANG Shixin

      2013,87(3):843-857, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper discusses the enrichment and depletion regularities for porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposits in different regions and varied deposit genetic types in the same area, taking three porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposits (i.e., the Chengmenshan in Jiangxi, Wunugetushan in Inner Mongolia, Baishantang in Gansu) and two copper deposits in Gansu Province (the Huitongshan skarn deposit and Gongpoquan composite deposit) as case studies. The results show that porphyry Cu-Mo deposits or skarn copper deposits include both enrichment of the ore-forming elements and associated elements, and depletion of some lithophile dispersed elements, rare earth elements (REE) and some major elements. And the depleted elements vary with deposits, having generality and their own features. On a deposit scale, the positive anomalies of enriched elements and negative anomalies of depleted elements follow in a sequence to comprise regular anomaly models of spatial structures. The exploration in the Tongchang deposit in Jiangxi and Huitongshan deposit in Gansu suggests that anomaly models play a key role in the identification of mineral occurrences and deposits compared to one single enriched element anomaly. And the anomaly models exert a critical effect on the optimization of prospecting targets and their potential evaluation.

    • Lü Junchang

      2010,84(2):241-246, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A new boreopterid pterosaur: Zhenyuanopterus longirostris gen. et sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning is erected, based on the complete skeleton with a skull and lower jaws preserved. It is characterized by: a large boreopterid pterosaur with a high number of teeth, where the anterior teeth are much larger than posterior ones; the length of the dorsal + sacral vertebrae is nearly half the length of the skull; ratio of the length of the humerus to metacarpal IV is approximately 91% and the, humerus, femur and third wing phalanx are all equal in length and the feet are specially small. It represents the largest boroepterid pterosaur discovered from western Liaoning and its surrounding areas so far

    • WANG Sufen, ZHANG Tingshan, ZHOU Jixian, HU Yu

      2017,91(1):320-340, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The distribution characteristics of the oil-water contact are the basis for the reservoir exploration and development and reserves evaluation. The reservoir with a tilted oil-water contact has a unique formation mechanism, and the understanding of its distribution and formation mechanism will directly affect the evaluations for the reservoir type, well deployment, selection of well pattern and type, determination of test section, and reserves evaluation. Based on the analysis of reservoir characteristics, petrophysical properties and geological structure in 40 reservoirs worldwide with tilted oil-water contacts, the progress of the research on the formation mechanisms of titled oil-water contacts is summarized in terms of the hydrodynamic conditions, reservoir heterogeneity, neotectonic movement and oil-gas exploitation. According to the formation mechanism of tilted oil-water contacts and the needs of exploration research, different aspects of research methods are summarized and classified, such as the calculation of equipotential surfaces for oil and water in the formation, analysis of formation pressure and analysis of reservoir physical properties and so on. Based upon statistical analysis, it is suggested that the degree of the inclination of the oil-water contact be divided based on the dip of oil-water contact (DipTOWC). The tilted oil-water contact is divided into three categories: large dip (DipTOWC≥55 m/km), medium dip (4 m/km≤DipTOWC<55 m/km), and small dip (DipTOWC<4 m/km). The classification and evaluation method can be combined with structure amplitude and reservoir property. The formation mechanism of domestic and international reservoirs with tilted oil-water contacts are summarized in this paper, which have important significance in guiding the exploration and development of the oilfield with tilted oil-water contacts, reserves evaluation, and well deployment.

    • Mahboobeh JAMSHIDI BADR, Fariborz MASOUDI, Alan S. COLLINS, Ali SORBI

      2012,86(1):48-64, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Soursat metamorphic complex (SMC) in northwestern Iran is part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt. The complex is composed of different metamorphic and plutonic rocks, but is dominated by metapelites composed of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolite, cordierite, and andalusite. Porphyroblasts in schists have the same fabric, and three stages of schistosity are present. The internal schistosity (Sn) inclusion trails are also offset by conjugate sets of extensional schistosity (Sn+1) and a second (Sn+2) that crenulates (Sn+1). Polyphase metamorphisms are present in the complex. Garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and fibrolite assemblage preserves conditions during the M1 metamorphic event. This assemblage yields a P–t estimate of 645±11°C and 6.5±0.5 kbar. Other samples of the central part of SMC contain cordierite and andalusite (M2) overgrowth that yields a P–t estimate of 532±33°C and 2.1±1.1 kbar.

    • ZHENG Yadong, ZHANG Qing, HOU Quanlin

      2015,89(4):1133-1152, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The essential difference in the formation of conjugate shear zones in brittle and ductile deformation is that the intersection angle between brittle conjugate faults in the contractional quadrants is acute (usually ~60°) whereas the angle between conjugate ductile shear zones is obtuse (usually 110°). The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, an experimentally validated empirical relationship, is commonly applied for interpreting the stress directions based on the orientation of the brittle shear fractures. However, the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion fails to explain the formation of the low-angle normal fault, high-angle reverse fault, and the conjugate strike-slip fault with an obtuse angle in the σ1 direction. Although it is ten years since the Maximum-Effective-Moment (MEM) criterion was first proposed, and increasingly solid evidence in support of it has been obtained from both observed examples in nature and laboratory experiments, it is not yet a commonly accepted model to use to interpret these anti-Mohr-Coulomb features that are widely observed in the natural world. The deformational behavior of rock depends on its intrinsic mechanical properties and external factors such as applied stresses, strain rates, and temperature conditions related to crustal depths. The occurrence of conjugate shear features with obtuse angles of ~110° in the contractional direction on different scales and at different crustal levels are consistent with the prediction of the MEM criterion, therefore ~110° is a reliable indicator for deformation localization that occurred at medium-low strain rates at any crustal levels. Since the strain–rate is variable through time in nature, brittle, ductile, and plastic features may appear within the same rock.

    • CHI Guoxiang1, *, CHU Haixia1, Ryan SCOTT1, CHOU I-Ming2

      2014,88(4):1169-1182, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Raman peaks of various hydrates in the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 system have been previously identified, but a quantitative relationship between the Raman peaks and XNaCl (i.e., NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2)) has not been established, mainly due to the difficulty to freeze the solutions. This problem was solved by adding alumina powder to the solutions to facilitate nucleation of crystals. Cryogenic (-185oC) Raman spectroscopic studies of alumina-spiced solutions indicate that XNaCl is linearly correlated with the total peak area fraction of hydrohalite. Capsules of solutions made from silica capillary were prepared to simulate fluid inclusions. Most of these artificial fluid inclusions could not be totally frozen even at temperatures as low as -185oC, and the total peak area fraction of hydrohalite is not correlated linearly with XNaCl. However, the degree of deviation (DXNaCl) from the linear correlation established earlier is related to the amount of residual solution, which is reflected by the ratio (r) of the baseline “bump” area, resulting from the interstitial unfrozen brine near 3435 cm-1, and the total hydrate peak area between 3350 and 3600 cm-1. A linear correlation between DXNaCl and r is established to estimate XNaCl from cryogenic Raman spectroscopic analysis for fluid inclusions.

    • LI Jianjun, Martin G. LOCKLEY, ZHANG Yuguang, HU Songmei, MATSUKAWA Masaki, BAI Zhiqiang

      2012,86(1):1-10, DOI:

      Abstract:

      A large track site with multiple, well-preserved trackways of an Early Jurassic quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur is the first report of Moyenisauripus-like trackways from Asia, herein named Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum. The tracks occur in a clastic fluvial sequence in the Fuxian Formation in Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province, which is in the same general region as the discovery site of Sinoichnites,the first dinosaur track reported from China. Based on size and morphology, it is likely that Sinoichnites, which is now lost, also represents an ornithischian. The Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum trackways show two modes of preservation: the first representing deeper tracks, with sediment rims, results in Deltapodus-like tracks, with indistinct pes digit traces and sub-circular manus traces, the second produces Moyenosauripus-like tracks, with clear tridactyl and pentadactyl digit traces in the pes and manus respectively. Thus the Shenmu trackways play a key role in resolving globally significant ichnotaxonomic problems surrounding the nomenclature of Sinoichnites, Moyenosauripus, Deltapodus and other named (Ravatichnus) and unnamed trackways from Asia, Africa and Europe. In addition they shed important light on the paleogeographical and paleoecological distribution of quadrupedal ornithischians in the Early Mesozoic. The track site has been the focus of a major excavation to transfer the trackways from their original remote location to the new Shenmu Museum, in Shenmu City. Other tracksites in the area which reveal Anomoepus, Grallator and the Deltapodus morphotype, together with Shenmuichnus and plant fossil evidence, suggest an Early Jurassic age for the tracksite.

    • DU Jianjun, LI Dunpeng, WANG Yufang, MA Yinsheng

      2017,91(1):76-92, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Weihe Graben is not only an important Cenozoic fault basin in China but also a significant active seismic zone. The Huashan piedmont fault is an important active fault on the southeast side of the Weihe Graben and has been highly active since the Cenozoic. The well–known Great Huaxian County Earthquake of 1556 occurred on the Huashan piedmont fault. This earthquake, which claimed the lives of approximately 830000 people, is one of the few large earthquakes known to have occurred on a high–angle normal fault. The Huashan piedmont fault is a typical active normal fault that can be used to study tectonic activity and the associated hazards. In this study, the types and characteristics of late Quaternary deformation along this fault are discussed from geological investigations, historical research and comprehensive analysis. On the basis of its characteristics and activity, the fault can be divided into three sections, namely eastern, central and western. The eastern and western sections display normal slip. Intense deformation has occurred along the two sections during the Quaternary; however, no deformation has occurred during the Holocene. The central section has experienced significant high–angle normal fault activity during the Quaternary, including the Holocene. Holocene alluvial fans and loess cut by the fault have been identified at the mouths of many stream valleys of the Huashan Mountains along the central section of the Huashan piedmont fault zone. Of the three sections of the Huashan piedmont fault, the central section is the most active and was very active during the late Quaternary. The rate of normal dip–slip was 1.67–2.71±0.11 mm/a in the Holocene and 0.61±0.15 mm/a during the Mid–Late Pleistocene. As is typical of normal faults, the late Quaternary activity of the Huashan piedmont fault has produced a set of disasters, which include frequent earthquakes, collapses, landslides, mudslides and ground fissures. Ground fissures mainly occur on the hanging–wall of the Huashan piedmont fault, with landslides, collapses and mudslides occurring on the footwall.

    • K.V. BADHE, H.S. PANDALAI

      2015,89(3):715-725, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Re-equilibration of fluid inclusions in crystals takes place by loss or gain of solvents and solutes from fluid inclusions and by changes in their volumes. Volume change of fluid inclusions are primarily dictated by elastic properties and available slip planes of host crystals. In the present study, the phase-behavior of fluids entrapped in co-precipitated calcite and barite is studied. While calcite contains only biphase fluid inclusions, barite has predominantly monophase fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and leachate analysis are used to establish the nature of entrapped fluids and entrapment temperature is substantiated through independent sulfur isotope geothermometry using coexisting barite and pyrite. Phase transitions in the monophase fluid inclusions in barite are explained in terms of over-pressuring of fluids in these fluid inclusions relative to fluids entrapped in calcite owing to the low bulk modulus of barite.

    • ZHANG Gang, WANG Xuben, FANG Hui, GUO Ziming, ZHANG Zhaobin, LUO Wei, CAI Xuelin, LI Jun, LI Zhong, WU Xing

      2015,89(2):531-541, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Panxi region is located in the frontal zone of positive squeezing subduction and side squeezing shearing between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) and broadband magnetotelluric (MT) techniques are both used to study the deep electrical conductivity structure in this region; magnetic and gravity surveys are also performed along the profile. According to the 2-D resistivity model along the Yanyuan-Yongshan profile, a high-conductivity layer (HCL) exists widely in the crust, and a high-resistivity block (HRB) exists widely in the upper mantle in general, as seen by the fact that a large HCL exists from the western Jinpingshan tectonic zone to the eastern Mabian tectonic zone in the crust, while the HRB found in the Panxi tectonic zone is of abnormally high resistivity in that background compared to both sides of Panxi tectonic zone. In addition, the gravity and magnetic field anomalies are of high value. Combined with geological data, the results indicate that there probably exists basic or ultrabasic rock with a large thickness in the lithosphere in the Panxi axial region, which indicates that fracture activity once occurred in the lithosphere. As a result, we can infer that the high-resistivity zone in the Panxi lithosphere is the eruption channel for Permian Emeishan basalt and the accumulation channel for basic and ultrabasic rock. The seismic sources along the profile are counted according to seismic record data. The results indicate that the most violent earthquake sources are located at the binding site of the HRB and the HCL, where the tectonic activity zone is generally acknowledged to be; however, the earthquakes occurring in the HCL are not so violent, which reflects the fact that the HCL is a plastic layer, and the fracture threshold of a plastic layer is low generally, making high stress difficult to accumulate but easy to release in the layer. As a result, a higher number of smaller earthquakes occurred in the HCL at Daliangshan tectonic zone, and violent earthquakes occurred at the binding site of high- and low-resistivity blocks at the Panxi tectonic zone.

    • 2021,95(3):1056-1056, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14310

      Abstract:

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