• Volume 86,Issue 1,2012 Table of Contents
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    • An Important Ornithischian Tracksite in the Early Jurassic of the Shenmu Region, Shaanxi, China

      2012, 86(1):1-10.

      Abstract (6018) HTML (0) PDF 13.67 M (4585) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A large track site with multiple, well-preserved trackways of an Early Jurassic quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur is the first report of Moyenisauripus-like trackways from Asia, herein named Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum. The tracks occur in a clastic fluvial sequence in the Fuxian Formation in Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province, which is in the same general region as the discovery site of Sinoichnites,the first dinosaur track reported from China. Based on size and morphology, it is likely that Sinoichnites, which is now lost, also represents an ornithischian. The Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum trackways show two modes of preservation: the first representing deeper tracks, with sediment rims, results in Deltapodus-like tracks, with indistinct pes digit traces and sub-circular manus traces, the second produces Moyenosauripus-like tracks, with clear tridactyl and pentadactyl digit traces in the pes and manus respectively. Thus the Shenmu trackways play a key role in resolving globally significant ichnotaxonomic problems surrounding the nomenclature of Sinoichnites, Moyenosauripus, Deltapodus and other named (Ravatichnus) and unnamed trackways from Asia, Africa and Europe. In addition they shed important light on the paleogeographical and paleoecological distribution of quadrupedal ornithischians in the Early Mesozoic. The track site has been the focus of a major excavation to transfer the trackways from their original remote location to the new Shenmu Museum, in Shenmu City. Other tracksites in the area which reveal Anomoepus, Grallator and the Deltapodus morphotype, together with Shenmuichnus and plant fossil evidence, suggest an Early Jurassic age for the tracksite.

    • Ginkgo huolinhensis sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of Huolinhe Coal Field, Inner Mongolia, China

      2012, 86(1):11-19.

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      Abstract:A new species, Ginkgo huolinhensis sp. nov., with well-preserved cuticle from the Lower Cretaceous, Huolinhe Formation of Huolinhe Coal Field in Inner Mongolia, China, was studied morphologically and anatomically. The main characters of the new species are found in the leaves which are deeply dissected with narrow lobes, trichomes developed on both upper and lower epidermal cells, a media papilla developed on the periclinal walls for each cell in upper cuticle, and no trichomes on the cuticle of the petioles. These characters of G. huolinhensis sp. nov. distinguish from the known species of Ginkgo previously reported. This study of the new species is beneficial for the taxonomic research of fossil Ginkgo, and should be helpful for a better understanding the paleoenvironment of Ginkgo living in northeastern China during the Early Cretaceous.

    • Elastic and Seismic Properties of Dabie-Sulu Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphic Rocks

      2012, 86(1):20-37.

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      Abstract:Lamé modulus (λ) and shear modulus (μ) are among the most important, intrinsic, elastic constants of rocks. Using λ and μ could be much more advantageous than using P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs). Here we quantified these equivalent isotropic elastic moduli for 115 representative rocks from the ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane of the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt (China) and their variations with pressure (P), temperature (T), density (ρ), Vp, Vs and mineralogical composition. Both moduli increase nonlinearly and linearly with increasing pressure at low (<200?300 MPa) and high (>200?300 MPa) pressures, respectively. In the regime of high pressures, λ and μ decrease quasi-linearly with increasing temperature with temperature derivatives dλ/dT and dμ/dT generally in the range of ?10×10?3 to ?1×10?3 GPa/oC. Dehydration of water-bearing minerals such as serpentine in peridotites and chlorite in retrograde eclogites results in an abrupt drop in λ while μ remains almost unchanged. In λ-ρ, μ-ρ and λ-μ plots, the main categories of UHP rocks can be characterized. Serpentinization leads to significant decreases in μ and λ as serpentine has extremely low values of λ, μ and ρ. Eclogites, common mafic rocks (mafic gneiss, metagabbro and amphibolite), and felsic rocks (orthogneiss and paragneiss) have high, moderate and low μ and λ values, respectively. For pyroxenes and olivines, λ increases but μ decreases with increasing Fe/Mg ratios. For plagioclase feldspars, both λ and μ exhibit a significant positive correlation with anorthite content. SiO2-rich felsic rocks and quartzites are deviated remarkably from the general trend lines of the acid-intermediate-mafic rocks in Vs-ρ, μ-ρ, λ-Vp, λ-Vs and μ-λ diagrams because quartz has extremely low λ (~8.1 GPa) and ρ (2.65 g/cm3) but moderate μ (44.4 GPa) values. Increasing the contents of garnet, rutile, ilmenite and magnetite results in a significant increase in the λ and μ values of the UHP metamorphic rocks. However, either λ or μ is insensitive to the compositional variations for pyralspite (pyrope-almandine-spessartine) solution series. The results provide potentially improved constraints on characterization of crustal composition based on the elastic properties of rocks and in?situ seismic data from deep continental roots.

    • Effect and Prospect of Basic Geological Survey Based on Airborne Gravimetry in China

      2012, 86(1):38-47.

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      Abstract:The airborne gravimetry was an important leap and innovation in the world’s history of geophysical exploration. China's first test of the airborne gravity geological survey in the onshore-offshore transitional area of the western and southern part of the Bohai Sea was successful and effective in geology. Based on the airborne gravity data, and combining previous ground gravity, seismic and drilling data etc., we carried out the geological interpretation by forward and inverse methods. The result shows that the airborne Bouguer gravity anomaly was clear, the fracture interpretation was reliable, and the inversion depth of the main geological interfaces was relatively accurate. This airborne gravity geological survey not only filled the exploring gaps in the onshore-offshore transitional area, and realized the geological and tectonic junction between the sea and the land, but also discovered four local gravity anomalies, 11 fractures and three sags or subsags, and so on. The good geological effect of airborne gravimetry not restricted by terrain condition shows that it can be served as a new geophysical method in the exploration of complex terrain physiognomy area such as mountain, jungle, desert, marsh, onshore-offshore transitional area and so on, and has an extensive application prospect in China in the future.

    • Mineralogical Evidence for Regional Metamorphism Overprinted by Contact Metamorphism

      2012, 86(1):48-64.

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      Abstract:The Soursat metamorphic complex (SMC) in northwestern Iran is part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt. The complex is composed of different metamorphic and plutonic rocks, but is dominated by metapelites composed of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolite, cordierite, and andalusite. Porphyroblasts in schists have the same fabric, and three stages of schistosity are present. The internal schistosity (Sn) inclusion trails are also offset by conjugate sets of extensional schistosity (Sn+1) and a second (Sn+2) that crenulates (Sn+1). Polyphase metamorphisms are present in the complex. Garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and fibrolite assemblage preserves conditions during the M1 metamorphic event. This assemblage yields a P–t estimate of 645±11°C and 6.5±0.5 kbar. Other samples of the central part of SMC contain cordierite and andalusite (M2) overgrowth that yields a P–t estimate of 532±33°C and 2.1±1.1 kbar.

    • Mapping Lunar Olivine Using Clementine Spectral Indices and Chemical Composition Parameters

      2012, 86(1):65-72.

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      Abstract:Olivine exposures at the central peak of Copernicus crater of the Earth’s Moon have been confirmed by telescope observations and Clementine spectra data. Using these exposures as training sites, this study used a method of combining two spectral indices (950?nm/750?nm and 2000?nm/1500?nm), one maturity index (Is/FeO), and four chemical content indices (FeO, Mg, Al, Ca), through a decision tree classifier, to map olivine-rich units on the west lunar surface based on mosaicked Clementine image (500 m pixel size). Most classified olivine exposures are found inside craters or on their rays, suggesting that olivine exposures are directly associated with the impact processes. The results have been validated in several selected sites, though further validations with data from the newest missions are strongly needed.

    • Magnetic Characterization of Amphibolites from the Fomopéa Pluton (West Cameroon): Their Implication in the Pan-African Deformation of the Central African Fold Belt

      2012, 86(1):73-84.

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      Abstract:The Fomopea granitic pluton is emplaced in gnessic and amphibolitic basement. These gneissic and amphibolitic basement rocks are represented in the pluton’s body as sub-rounded, elongated or stretched xenoliths. Amphibolitic xenoliths display testimonies of two main tectonic events namely: (i) E1 flattening deformation event characterized by a NW-SE to E-W foliation with a best pole at 246/57 and a mineral stretched lineation with a best line at 293/47; and (ii) E2 compressive event typified by (1) N-S to NNE-SSW steeply dipping foliation; (2) S-type flexion-fold indicating a sinistral shear movement. These amphibolite rocks indicate a magnetic susceptibility magnitude (Km) range from 418 μSI to 90092 μSI for 87% of the stations showing a ferromagnetic behavior. K-T curves reveal the presence of Ti-poor magnetite as susceptibility mineral carrier. Magnetic foliation and lineation suggest that the N-S strike direction observed in the Bamendou amphibolite is, as pointed out elsewhere in the Central African Fold Belt, of paramount importance in the tectonic evaluation of the Fomopea area, since it has most likely acted as major deformation phase in the second tectonic event in the belt.

    • Molar-Tooth Structure from the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation in Lingyuan, Yanshan Region, North China, and Geological Implications

      2012, 86(1):85-95.

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      Abstract:Although its origin has not yet reached a consensus so far, MTS (Molar-Tooth Structure) has been documented for more than 100 years. Current study reports a discovery of MTS from the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation, Lingyuan, Yanshan Region, North China, and the features and geological implications of MTS are further discussed. Here, straitigraphic horizons of MTS’s occurrences show that it was mainly located within the top part of the Wumishan Formation, i.e., limestone unit. Four kinds of morphology of MTS, i.e., fine fusiform, debris, ribbon, ptigmatic and nodular (irregular), were recognized and thought to be highly related to the sedimentary environments and facies. Geochemistry of MTS including oxides, trace elements and C, O and Sr isotopes indicates that the horizons of MTS-bearing is of higher Sr/Ba and Ca/Mg ratios, lower positive δ13C and highly negative δ18O values than the adjacent stratigraphic levels of rare MTS. Lithology, morphology and geochemistry of MTS in the Wumishan Formation suggest that MTS occurs mainly in shallow subtidal near the storm wave base, which is typically characterized by warm temperature, oversaturated calcium carbonate seawater and high organic productivity. Furthermore, occasional enrichment of algae bacteria here is more favorable for the calcification of calcium oozes and catalytic for MTS. C isotope composition of the Wumishan Formation and MTS of this study is well correlated with that of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Supergroup, North America and Riphean, Siberia, suggesting that MTS acts as a sedimentary record responding to global changes and is a perfect indicator in Precambrian stratigraphic correlation worldwide.

    • Illite Crystallinity Mapping of Very Low Grade Metamorphism of Triassic Metapelites in the Zoigê Area, Western China

      2012, 86(1):96-105.

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      Abstract:X-ray diffraction methods for estimating the metamorphic grade of diagenetic, anchizone and epizone in metapelites are reviewed and applied to samples from a 7000?m+ borehole in western China and surface samples from the surrounding Zoigê area. Kübler’s illite crystallinity (IC) measurements provide more consistent results than calculated values of percentage of illite in the I/S mixed layers and percentage of I/S mixed layers. Down-borehole IC values display a typical burial metamorphic relationship between stratigraphic level and IC. A method for preparing very low grade metamorphic maps is described, and isograds plotted on a regional geological map at selected values of IC, delineating a high temperature diagenetic zone, an anchizone, and an epizone. The map shows that IC values are controlled by stratigraphic level in the north of the study area (i.e. burial metamorphism), and proximity to an igneous intrusive body in the south (i.e. contact metamorphism).

    • Platinum-group Element Geochemistry of Magnetite from Porphyry-Cu-Mo Deposits and their Host Rocks (Siberia, Russia)

      2012, 86(1):106-117.

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      Abstract:The concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) have been analyzed in primary magmatic magnetite samples from the Zhireken, Shakhtama and Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (Siberia, Russia) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the range of PGE contents in magnetites and to check whether magnetite from two main rock suites (barren plutonic suite and mineralized porphyry suite) has distinct PGE composition. The results presented here indicate that magnetites are enriched in PGE relative to whole-rocks. Comparison of ore-related porphyry and barren plutonic suites shows that magnetite exhibit relatively similar PGE distribution patterns in both suites. Variations in Rh and Ru contents were controlled by the oxygen fugacity during magma crystallization.

    • Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of the Tourmalinites from Boron-bearing Series of Borate Deposits in Eastern Liaoning and its Geological Implications

      2012, 86(1):118-130.

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      Abstract:This paper focused on the zircon sensitive high resolution ion micro-probeU-Pb geochronology of the tourmalinites from boron-bearing series of borate deposits in Eastern Liaoning. The zircons commonly have core-rim structures, most cores show oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence and plane polarized light images, suggesting a magmatic detrital origin. Ages of the magmatic detrital zircons from the hyalotourmalite samples (N13) and (N14) are 2175?±?5??Ma and 2171?±?9??Ma, respectively. Moreover, metamorphic zircon from the sample (N13) shows an age of 1906?±?4??Ma. Zircon core and rim from the hyalotourmalite sample (N02) record ages of 2171?±?6??Ma and 1889?±?62??Ma, which are explained as indicating the formation and metamorphic ages. Combined with the geological and geochemical studies, it can be concluded that the tourmalinites are formed during sedimentary exhalative mineralizations in the mid-Paleoproterozoic (~2170?Ma) and underwent the metamorphism in the late-Paleoproterozoic (~1900?Ma). The tourmalinites are the products of submarine acid volcanism in the extension rifting phase of the Liaoji Paleoproterozoic Rift, the rock-forming materials of which are derived from the mantle sources with recycling crustal contamination. The emergence of tourmalinites not only indicates the mid-Paleoproterozoic tectonic-magmatic processes, but also provides impetus, heat and material sources for the mineralization of borate deposits in Eastern Liaoning.

    • Petrogenesis of the Xihuashan Granite in Southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Constraints from Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, Geochemistry and Nd Isotopes

      2012, 86(1):131-152.

      Abstract (3418) HTML (0) PDF 38.16 M (2062) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Mesozoic granitic intrusions are widely distributed in the Nanling region, South China. Yanshanian granites are closely connected with the formation of tungsten deposits. The Xihuashan granite is a typical representative of tungsten-bearing granite. The Xihuashan granite consists mainly of medium-grained porphyritic biotite granite, medium-grained biotite granite and fine-grained two-mica granite, which correspond to LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 155.5±0.4 Ma, 153.0±0.6 Ma and 152.8±0.9 Ma, respectively. Rocks from the Xihuashan mining area displays high SiO2 (73.85% to 76.49%) and Na2O+K2O contents (8.09% to 9.43%), belonging to high-K calc-alkaline series. They are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous with A/CNK values ranging from 0.96 to 1.06. All granites in this study area are rich in Rb, Th, U and Pb, and depleted in Ba, Sr, P, Ti, Nb and Eu, especially depleted in medium-grained biotite granite and fine-grained two-mica granite. The medium-grained porphyritic biotite granites usually have high LREE concentrations, whereas medium-grained biotite granite and fine-grained two-mica granite displays high HREE contents. Our geochemical data reveal that the studied rocks are highly fractionated I-type granite. The magma underwent strong magma differentiation with decreasing temperature and increasing oxygen fugacity, which may explain the formation of three types of distinct granites. Variations of Rb, Sr and Ba concentrations in different type granites were controlled by fractional crystallization of biotite and feldspar. Fractional crystallization of monazite, allanite and apatite resulted in LREE changes in granite, and formation of garnet mainly caused HREE changes. Granites from the Xihuashan mining area have relatively high εNd(t) values (?9.77 to ?11.46), indicating that they were probably generated by partial melting of underlying Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks with minor addition of juvenile crust or mantle-derived magmas.

    • Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic Events Recorded by Apatite Fission Track in the Northern Longmen-Micang Mountains Region

      2012, 86(1):153-165.

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      Abstract:There is a cross-cutting relationship between the E-W trending structures and the NE-trending structures in the northern Longmen-Micang Mountains region, which reflects possible regional tectonic transition and migration. Apatite fission track (AFT) analyses of 15 samples collected from this area yield apparent ages varying from 30.3±4.2 Ma to 111.7±9.0 Ma and confined-track-lengths ranging from 10.6±0.3 μm to 12.4±0.1 μm. Four specific groups were identified on the basis of the Track Age Spectrum Calculation (TASC) patterns, i.e., 143–112?Ma, 93.6–88?Ma, 42–40?Ma and ~25.6?Ma. These age groups correspond to the spatial distributions of datasets and may represent four tectonic events. Together with the regional deformation patterns, the four age groups are interpreted to indicate tectonic superposition, transition and migration during the Meso-Cenozoic with the following possible order: (1) the Micang Mountains belt was dominated by the E-W trending structure during 143–112?Ma; (2) the contraction of the Longmen Mountains belt from the NW to the SE during 93.6–88?Ma led to the superposition of the NE-trending structures over the E-W trendinding structures; (3) dextral strike-slip shear dominated the Longmen Mountains belt at 42–40?Ma; (4) westward migration of the active tectonic belt occurred from 93.6–25.6?Ma in a break-back sequence in the northern Longmen Mountains belt. The Late Cenozoic tectonics in the northern Longmen Mountains belt are characterized by the dextral strike-slip shear and the occurrence of westward break-back sequence of deformations. As a result, north-south differences in deformations along the Longmen Mountains belt were intensified since the Miocene time and strains were mainly accumulated in the hinterland of the Longmen Mountains instead of being propagated to the foreland basin.

    • Microbial Mats in Tibetan Hot Springs and their Contributions to the Cesium-bearing Geyserite Ore Formation

      2012, 86(1):166-173.

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      Abstract:Microbial mats, mainly dominated by filamentous algae Calothrix and Oscillatoria, are well developed in Tibetan hot springs. A great number of fossil microorganisms, which existed as algae lamination in thermal depositional cesium-bearing geyserite in this area, are identified as Calothrix and Oscillatoria through microexamination and culture experiments. These microbial mats show the ability to accumulate cesium from spring water to the extent of cesium concentration of 0.46–1.03% cell dry weight, 900 times higher than that in water, and capture large numbers of cesium-bearing opal grain. Silicon dioxide colloid in spring water replaces and fills with the organism and deposits on it to form algae laminated geyserite after dehydration and congelation. Cesium in the microbial mats and opal grain is then reserved in the geyserite. Eventually, cesium-bearing algae laminated geyserite is formed. Study on cesium distribution in geyserite also shows that cesium content in algae lamination, especially in heavily compacted algae lamination, is higher than in the opal layer. For geyserite with no algae lamination or other organism structure, which is generally formed in spring water with low silicon content, cesium accumulation and cesium-bearing opal grain assembled by the microbial mats are also indispensable. After the microbial mats accumulating cesium from spring water, silicon dioxide colloid poorly replaces and fills with the organism to form opal grain-bearing tremellose microbial mats. The shape and structure of the organisms are then destroyed, resulting in cesium-bearing geyserite with no algae lamination structure after dehydration and congelation. It is then concluded that microbial mats in the spring area contribute to the enrichment of cesium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite, and a biological genesis of the geyserite, besides of the physical and chemical genesis, is likely.

    • Provenance System Analysis of the Nantun Formation of the Huhehu Sag in Hailar Basin

      2012, 86(1):189-198.

      Abstract (2908) HTML (0) PDF 8.75 M (1943) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Huhehu Sag is a new battlefield for the future oil and gas exploration in the Hailar Basin. At present, exploration of this area stays at a low level and the understanding of the provenance system of the Nantun Formation is comparatively weak. So, to carry out the detailed depiction of the provenance system in the study area is significant for the sedimentary system reconstruction, for the prediction of reservoir distribution and favorable areas. Based on comprehensive analysis of paleogeomorphy, light-heavy mineral and seismic reflection features, sandstone thickness and sandstone percentage, this paper analyzes in detail the provenance system of the Nantun Formation in Huhehu Sag from various angles and levels. It shows that provenances of the Huhehu Sag mainly originated from the eastern Xilinbeier Salient and western Bayan Mountain Uplift. The provenances surrounding the lake basin converged to the center of the basin, among which, the steep slope belt and the gentle slope belt are the main provenances, and the southern uplift is a secondary one. The distribution framework of the provenance fundamentally determines the distribution rules of the depositional system and its sand body developing during the Nantun period.

    • New Approaches and Markers for Identifying Secondary Biogenic Coalbed Gas

      2012, 86(1):199-208.

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      Abstract:According to the adsorption-desorption characteristics of coalbed gas and analysis of various experimental data, this paper proposes that the generation of secondary biogenic gas (SBG) and its mixing of with the residual thermogenic gas at an early stage inevitably lead to secondary changes of the thermogenic gas and various geochemical additive effects. Experimental results also show that the fractionation of the carbon isotope of methane of coal core desorption gas changes very little; the δ13C1 value of the mixed gas of biogenic and thermogenic gases is between the δ13C1 values of the two “original” gases, and the value is determined by the carbon isotopic compositions and mixing proportions of the two “original” methanes. Therefore this paper proposes that the study on the secondary changes of the thermogenic gas and various additive effects is a new effective way to study and identify SBG. Herein, a systematic example of research on the coalbed gas (Huainan coalbed gas) is further conducted, revealing a series of secondary changes and additive effects, the main characteristics and markers of which are: (1) the contents of CO2 and heavy-hydrocarbons decrease significantly; (2) the content of CH4 increases and the gas becomes drier; (3) the δ13C and δD values of methane decrease significantly and tend to have biogenetic characteristics; and (4) the values of δ13C2 and δ13CCO2 grow higher. These isotopic values also change with the degradation degrees by microbes and mixing proportions of the two kinds of gases in different locations. There exists a negative correlation between the δ13C1 vs δ13CCO2 values. The △δ13CC2–C1 values obviously become higher. The distributions of the △δ13CCO2–C1 values are within certain limits and show regularity. There exist a positive correlation between the N2 versus Ar contents, and a negative correlation between the N2 versus CH4 contents, indicating the down forward infiltration of the surface water containing air. These are important markers of the generation and existence of SBG.

    • Accumulation and Reformation of Silurian Reservoir in the Northern Tarim Basin

      2012, 86(1):209-225.

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      Abstract:Silurian sandstone in Tarim Basin has good reservoir properties and active oil and gas shows, especially thick widely-distributed bituminous sandstone. Currently, the Silurian was found containing both bitumen and conventional reservoirs, with petroleum originating from terrestrial and marine source rocks. The diversity of their distribution was the result of "three sources, three stages" accumulation and adjustment processes. "Three sources" refers to two sets of marine rocks in Cambrian and Middle-Upper Ordovician, and a set of terrestrial rock formed in Triassic in the Kuqa depression. "Three stages" represents three stages of accumulation, adjustment and reformation occurring in Late Caledonian, Late Hercynian and Late Himalayan, respectively. The study suggests that the Silurian bitumen is remnants of oil generated from Cambrian and Ordovician source rocks and accumulated in the sandstone reservoir during Late Caledonian-Early Hercynian and Late Hercynian stages, and then damaged by the subsequent two stages of tectonic uplift movements in Early Hercynian and Pre-Triassic. The authors presumed that the primary paleo-reservoirs formed during these two stages might be preserved in the Silurian in the southern deep part of the Tabei area. Except for the Yingmaili area where the Triassic terrestrial oil was from the Kuqa Depression during Late Himalayan Stage, all movable oil reservoirs originated from marine sources. They were secondary accumulations from underlying Ordovician after structure reverse during the Yanshan-Himalayan stage. Oil/gas shows mixed-source characteristics, and was mainly from Middle-Upper Ordovician. The complexity and diversity of the Silurian marine primary properties were just defined by these three stages of oil-gas charging and tectonic movements in the Tabei area.

    • Dealing with the Spatial Synthetic Heterogeneity of Aquifers in the North China Plain: A Case Study of Luancheng County in Hebei Province

      2012, 86(1):226-245.

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      Abstract:The complexity of alluvial-pluvial fan depositional systems makes the detailed characterization of their heterogeneity difficult, yet such a detailed characterization is commonly needed for construction of reliable groundwater models. Traditional models mainly focus on using a single aquifer property to qualitatively or semi-quantitatively characterize the heterogeneity of aquifer, so that they are unable to quantitatively reflect the synthetic heterogeneity of all aquifer properties. In this paper, we propose the heterogeneity synthetic index (HSI) for quantitative characterization of synthetic heterogeneity of an aquifer. The proposed calculation process involves four steps: (1) estimation of the hydraulic conductivity of a sediment sample using the cloud-Markov model, (2) establishment of the sedimentary microfacies distribution model through the Markov chain, (3) characterization of the distribution model of hydrogeological parameters using the improved sequential simulation method according to the “facies-controlled modeling” technique, and (4) application of the entropy weight method to calculate the weight coefficient of the above aquifer properties. The HSI of an aquifer is calculated by superposition of these models according to the corresponding weight coefficient. This approach was applied to the Luancheng aquifer deposit in the southeast Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan in the North China Plain (NCP). The results have demonstrated that aquifer 3 which was formed in the middle Pleistocene has the strongest heterogeneity, with an HSI of 0.25–0.75. Aquifer 4 formed in the early Pleistocene shows an intermediate heterogeneity, with the HSI ranging 0.35–0.75. The weakest heterogeneity was found in aquifers 1 and 2 formed in the Holocene and late Pleistocene, with HSI values of 0.40–0.75 and 0.40–0.80, respectively. The heterogeneity of all the four aquifers is relatively strong in the radial direction of the Huai River alluvial-pluvial fan due to the abrupt change of microfacies. In contrast, in the radial direction of the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan, the microfacies change mildly, and the continuity of hydrogeological parameters is better, which has resulted in weaker heterogeneity of the four aquifers in this direction. Findings suggest that the sedimentary environment has significant effects on the aquifer heterogeneity. Considering that there are many aquifer properties, HSI can quantitatively characterize the synthetic heterogeneity of the aquifer and describe the influence of each aquifer property on the synthetic heterogeneity of the aquifer according to its weight coefficient. Thus the HSI approach can be successfully used to deal with the spatial heterogeneity of aquifer and provide a foundation for studies on contaminant transport.

    • A Hybrid Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Groundwater Management under Variable Density Conditions

      2012, 86(1):246-255.

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      Abstract:In this paper, a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), is proposed for the management of groundwater resources under variable density conditions. Relatively few MOEAs can possess global search ability contenting with intensified search in a local area. Moreover, the overall searching ability of tabu search (TS) based MOEAs is very sensitive to the neighborhood step size. The NPTSGA is developed on the thought of integrating the genetic algorithm (GA) with a TS based MOEA, the niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS), which helps to alleviate both of the above difficulties. Here, the global search ability of the NPTS is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arising from the evolving genetic algorithm population. Furthermore, the proposed methodology coupled with a density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport simulator, SEAWAT, is developed and its performance is evaluated through a synthetic seawater intrusion management problem. Optimization results indicate that the NPTSGA offers a tradeoff between the two conflicting objectives. A key conclusion of this study is that the NPTSGA keeps the balance between the intensification of nondomination and the diversification of near Pareto-optimal solutions along the tradeoff curves and is a stable and robust method for implementing the multi-objective design of variable-density groundwater resources.

    • The Surface Rupture Zone and Coseismic Deformation Produced by the Yutian Ms7.3 Earthquake of 21 March 2008, Xinjiang

      2012, 86(1):256-265.

      Abstract (2717) HTML (0) PDF 10.29 M (1913) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:On 21 March 2008, a Ms7.3 earthquake occurred at Quickbird, Yutian County, Xinjiang. We attempt to reveal the features of the causative fault of this shock and its coseismic deformation field. Our work is based on analysis and interpretation to high-resolution satellite images as well as differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR) data from the satellite Envisat SAR, coupled with seismicity, focal mechanism solutions and active tectonics in this region. The result shows that the 40?km-long, nearly NS trending surface rupture zone by this event lies on a range-front alluvial platform in Qira County. It is characterized by distinct linear traces and simple structure with 1–3-m-wide individual seams and maximum 6.5?m width of a collapse fracture. Along the rupture zone many secondary fractures and fault-bounded blocks are seen, exhibiting remarkable extension. The coseismic deformation affected a large area 100×100?km2. D-InSAR analysis indicates that the interferometric deformation field is dominated by extensional faulting with a small strike-slip component. Along the causative fault, the western wall fell down and the eastern wall, that is the active unit, rose up, both with westerly vergence. Because of the big deformation gradients near the seismogenic fault, no interference fringes are seen on images, and what can be determined is a vertical displacement 70?cm or more between the two fault walls. According to the epicenter and differential occurrence times from the National Earthquake Information Center, China Earthquake Network Center, Harvard and USGS, it is suggested that the seismic fault ruptured from north to south.

    • Middle-Late Pleistocene Glacial Lakes in the Grand Canyon of the Tsangpo River, Tibet

      2012, 86(1):266-283.

      Abstract (18125) HTML (0) PDF 25.23 M (18241) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Many moraines formed between Daduka and Chibai in the Tsangpo River valley since Middle Pleistocene. A prominent set of lacustrine and alluvial terraces on the valley margin along both the Tsangpo and Nyang Rivers formed during Quaternary glacial epoch demonstrate lakes were created by damming of the river. Research was conducted on the geological environment, contained sediments, spatial distribution, timing, and formation and destruction of these paleolakes. The lacustrine sediments 14C (10537±268 aBP at Linzhi Brick and Tile Factory, 22510±580 aBP and 13925±204 aBP at Bengga, 21096±1466 aBP at Yusong) and a series of ESR (electron spin resonance) ages at Linzhi town and previous data by other experts, paleolakes persisted for 691~505 kaBP middle Pleistocene ice age, 75–40 kaBP the early stage of last glacier, 27–8 kaBP Last Glacier Maximum (LGM), existence time of lakes gradually shorten represents glacial scale and dam moraine supply potential gradually cut down, paleolakes and dam scale also gradually diminished. This article calculated the average lacustrine sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake in LGM was 12.5 mm/a, demonstrates Mount Namjagbarwa uplifted strongly at the same time, the sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake is more larger than that of enclosed lakes of plateau inland shows the climatic variation of Mount Namjagbarwa is more larger and plateau margin uplifted more quicker than plateau inland. This article analyzed formation and decay cause about the Zelunglung glacier on the west flank of Mount Namjagbarwa got into the Tsangpo River valley and blocked it for tectonic and climatic factors. There is a site of blocking the valley from Gega to Chibai. This article according to moraines and lacustrine sediments yielded paleolakes scale: the lowest lake base altitude 2850 m, the highest lake surface altitude 3585 m, 3240 m and 3180 m, area 2885 km2, 820 km2 and 810 km2, lake maximum depth of 735 m, 390 m and 330 m. We disclose the reason that previous experts discovered there were different age moraines dividing line of altitude 3180 m at the entrance of the Tsangpo Grand Canyon is dammed lake erosive decay under altitude 3180 m moraines in the last glacier era covering moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene, top 3180 m in the last glacier moraine remained because ancient dammed lakes didn’t erode it under 3180 m moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene exposed. The reason of the top elevation 3585 m moraines in the middle Pleistocene ice age likes that of altitude 3180 m. There were three times dammed lakes by glacier blocking the Tsangpo River during Quaternary glacial period. During other glacial and interglacial period the Zelunglung glacier often extended the valley but moraine supplemental speed of the dam was smaller than that of fluvial erosion and moraine movement, dam quickly disappeared and didn’t form stable lake.

    • Discovery of the World’s Second Largest Molybdenum Deposit in the Shapinggou Area, Jinzhai County, Anhui Province

      2012, 86(1):284-284.

      Abstract (2729) HTML (0) PDF 1.40 M (1825) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In the year of 2011, a super-large molybdenum deposit was discovered in the Shapinggou area, Jinzhai county, Anhui Province by the Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Anhui Province, with its reserve more than 2.2 million ton, just next to the Klimax molybdenum deposit (>3.3 million ton) in Colorado. It has ranged the world’s second largest molybdenum deposit, with potential economic value up to 100 billion dollars. Geological surveys suggest orebodies from the Shapinggou porphyry molybdenum deposit extend 1000 m long by up to 900 m wide. A drillhole intersects one orebody as thick as 945 m, with 0.2 wt% Mo. This entire deposit suggests 332+333 ore reserve as 1.275 billion ton and Mo metal reserve as 2 million ton; this does not include the reserves of the east-west ends. Based on the current exploration work, a total Mo metal reserve of 2.2 million ton can be accomplished. The Shapinggou molybdenum deposit is characterized by its large scale, high grade, concentrated orebodies and high economic value. The Shapinggou porphyry molybdenum deposit is the largest metal deposits during the 50 years’ prospecting history in Anhui Province. Its discovery rewrites China’s history of “no large-scale deposit in the eastern Dabie Mountains”, and validates that the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt is the most significant Au-Mo metallogenic belt.

    • Integrated Techniques of Underground CO2 Storage and Flooding Put into Commercial Application in the Jilin Oilfield, China

      2012, 86(1):285-285.

      Abstract (2311) HTML (0) PDF 1.40 M (1686) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Global warming touches everybody’s nerve, and direct reason for sharp increasing of CO2 in the atmosphere results mainly from the use of fossil fuel in power generation and other industries. How can humans return this “devil” to underground, and keep a peaceful environment for human? Scientists from all over the world have been exploring them. Since 2005, scientists from the Jilin oilfield affiliated to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) have developed integrated CCS-EOR techniques for CO2 capture, storage and enhanced oil recovery. Now this technique has become more and more mature, forming a systematic technique from CO2 capture, flooding to storage, and realizing commercial application. With flooding to enhance productivity, we have achieved CO2 zero-emission through cycling injection system. Carbon dioxide flooding technique is a recently developed technique used to increase oil recovery, with significant advantages in enhancing oil recovery of high-water, low- and ultra-low permeability reservoirs. When CO2 dissolved in crude oil, its volume expands, and viscosity decreases. Mixing of CO2 with crude oil will reduce the interfacial tension; this process improves the flooding efficiency, and further the oil recovery. Additionally, limestone (CaCO3) formed by reaction of a large amount of CO2 with underground Ca(OH) 2 can be buried deeply underground, thus reducing the greenhouse gas. Since 2005, CNPC has invested 3 billion Yuan firstly to conduct a pilot test of CO2 storage and CO2 flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). In the year of 2008, the Jilin oilfield built a pilot demonstration area of CO2 flooding and storage in the Daqingzi oilfield. And in the year of 2009, a demonstration area with its annual CO2 storage of 0.2 million ton and annual oil displacement of 0.1 million ton, was established, which indicates realization of commercial application of such technology. It is expected that by 2015, the first production area will be built in China, with an annual CO2 displacement amount reaching 0.5 million ton and an annual CO2 storage > 0.7 million ton, all of which are equivalent to the total amount of CO2 released from burning of 0.3 million coal.

Chief Editor:HOU Zengqian

Governing Body:China Association for Science and Technology

Organizer:Geological Society of China

start publication :1922

ISSN:ISSN 1000-9515

CN:CN 11-2001/P

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