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    Volume 97,2023 Issue 1
    • LI Ming, LI Lixia, WANG Wenhui

      2023,97(1):1-12, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15012


      Well-preserved graptolites of the genus Kiaerograptus are first reported from the upper Tremadocian Yinchupu Formation in the Nanba section, Yiyang, Hunan Province, South China, including four species, i.e., Kiaerograptus lauzonensis (Erdtmann, 1966), Kiaerograptus stoermeri (Erdtmann, 1965), Kiaerograptus cf. supremus? Lindholm, 1991, and Kiaerograptus sp., which are robust in form. Based on these new specimens, the Kiaerograptus biozone is established for the first time in South China, increasing the late Tremadoc graptolite biozones in South China from four to five, in ascending order as follows: the Adelograptus tenellus biozone, the Aorograptus victoriae biozone, the Kiaerograptus biozone, the Sagenograptus murrayi biozone, and the Hunnegraptus copiosus biozone. A review of the occurrence records for robust Kiaerograptus species worldwide reveals that the distribution is restricted to the Aorograptus victoriae biozone and Kiaerograptus biozone in the late Tremadocian. This limited stratigraphical distribution makes Kiaerograptus a valuable taxon for precise biostratigraphical correlation at both the regional and global scales.

    • SU He, CHEN Xuanhua, YU Xinqi, SHAO Zhaogang, YU Wei, ZHANG Yiping, WANG Yongchao

      2023,97(1):13-34, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15007


      The thrust nappe played an important role in the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the middle part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, the timing, structural style and kinematic processes of the thrust nappe remain controversial, particularly the detail of the thrust nappe in the Guaizihu region (110 km east of Ejinaq). In this study, we investigate new field mapping, seismic sections, geochronology and low-temperature thermochronometric dating to provide constraints on the history of this thrust nappe in the Chaheilingashun area (northwestern Guaizihu region). The field mapping, seismic sections and structural analysis reveal that the autochthonous system had developed a series of strong fold structures in the upper Permian strata. The allochthonous system mainly contains Devonian monzogranite (U-Pb age, ranges from 386.7 to 389.0 Ma) and Meso–Neoproterozoic schists (the maximum depositional age, ~880 Ma), which were thrust upon the upper Permian strata during Middle to Late Triassic. Based on similar rocks, geochronological dating and the Yagan thrust, we suggest that the postulated root zone of this allochthon might have originated from the Huhetaoergai area (40–60 km northwest of the study area). The geochronological results reveal that the lower age limit of this thrust nappe is constrained by the Lower–Middle Triassic syntectonic sediments (tuffaceous sandstone, ~247 Ma), which is the sedimentary response of the fold structure.,The timing of the termination of this thrust nappe is defined by the cooling age (40Ar/39Ar data, 217–211 Ma) of the Devonian monzogranite and Meso–Neoproterozoic schists. Thus, we consider this thrust event in the study area to potentially have occurred in the period from 247 Ma to 211 Ma, which may represent the tectonic response to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

    • ZHOU Weijian, HUANG Dezhi, YU Zhiqiang, M. SANTOSH, CAO Yusen, ZHANG Jiandong, LIU Lei, CUI Jianjun, LI Jianyuan

      2023,97(1):35-54, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14894


      The Neoproterozoic evolution of the Jiangnan Orogen is important for understanding the tectonic history of South China. As a volcanic-sedimentary sequence developed in the Nanhua rift, the Banxi Group preserves the records of important magmatic and tectonic events linked to the assembly and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In this study, we report the results from whole-rock major- and trace-element concentrations, with zircon LA-(MC)-ICP-MS U-Pb ages, trace elements and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of sandstones from the Banxi Group. The rocks are characterized by high SiO2 (65.88%–82.76%, with an average of 75.50%) contents, moderate (Fe2O3T + MgO) (1.81%–7.78%, mean: 3.79%) and TiO2 (0.39%–0.54%, mean: 0.48%), low K2O/Na2O (0.03–0.40, mean: 0.10) ratios and low Al2O3/SiO2 (0.11–0.24, mean: 0.15) ratios. The sandstones have high ΣREE contents (mean: 179.1 ppm), with chondrite-normalized REE patterns similar to the upper crust and PAAS, showing enriched LREE ((La/Yb)N mean: 14.85), sub-horizontal HREE curves and mild Eu (Eu/Eu*: 0.75–0.89, mean: 0.81) negative anomalies. Their geochemical characteristics resemble those of passive continental margin sandstones. Most of the zircons are magmatic in origin and yield a U-Pb age distribution with three peaks: a major age peak at 805 Ma and two subordinate age peaks at 1990 Ma and 2470 Ma, implying three major magmatic sources. The Neoproterozoic zircons have εHf(t) values ranging from ?47.4 to 12.4 (mostly ?20 to 0), suggesting a mixture of some juvenile arc-derived material and middle Paleoproterozoic heterogeneous crustal sources. The Hf model ages of middle Paleoproterozoic zircons (~1990 Ma) with negative εHf(t) values (?12.65 to ?6.21, Ave. = ?9.8) concentrated around the Meso-Paleoarchean (mean TDMC = 3.3–3.1 Ga). For late Neoarchean detrital zircons (~2470 Ma), εHf(t) values are divided into two groups, one with negative values (?9.16 to ?0.6) with model ages of 3.5–2.9 Ga, the other featuring positive values (1.0 to 3.9) with model ages of 2.9–2.7 Ga, recording a crustal growth event at ~2.5 Ga. Neoproterozoic zircons show volcanic arc affinities with partly intraplate magmatic features. We propose that the Banxi Group formed in a rift basin within a passive continental margin setting, which derived detritus from felsic to intermediate rocks from the Yangtze Block and a small amount of arc volcanic rocks. The middle Paleoproterozoic detrital zircon data suggest Columbia-aged basement lies beneath the western Jiangnan orogen.

    • ZHANG Kun, Lü Qingtian, ZHAO Jinhua, YAN Jiayong, LUO Fan, MAN Zuhui, XIAO Xiao, ZHANG Gang, YONG Fan

      2023,97(1):55-67, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14950


      Despite extensive efforts to understand the tectonic evolution of the Jiangnan Orogen in South China, the orogenic process and its mechanism remain a matter of dispute. Previous geodynamic studies have mostly focused on collisional orogeny, which is commonly invoked to explain the Jiangnan Orogen. However, it is difficult for such hypotheses to reconcile all the geological and geophysical data, especially the absence of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks. Based on the magnetotelluric data, we present a group of resistivity models produced through the combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional inversions, revealing the geo-electrical structures of Jiangnan and a typical collisional orogen. In our models, the resistive crust is separated into three parts by a prominent conductive layer with opposite dipping directions on both sides. A special thrust-nappe system, which is different from that developed in a typical collisional process, is revealed in the Jiangnan Orogen. This structure suggests a process different from the simple collisional orogeny. To interpret our observations, an ‘intra-continental orogeny’ is proposed to address the development of the Jiangnan Orogen in the Mesozoic. Furthermore, this ‘reactivated’ process may contain at least two stages caused by the decoupling of the lithosphere, which is revealed by an extra conductive layer beneath Jiangnan.

    • Bapi GOSWAMI, Susmita DAS, Ankita BASAK, Chitta BHATTACHARYYA

      2023,97(1):68-89, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15004


      Reports of shoshonitic rocks in Precambrian terrains are relatively rare. Pl-Grt amphibolites and Hbl-Bt mafic granulites occurring in the migmatitic gneisses of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) show calc-alkaline and shoshonitic characteristics. Relict porphyritic, sub-ophitic and poikilitic textures are noted in these rocks. Their parent magma was emplaced during the waning phase of the regional metamorphism. Geochemically, these?metamafics are similar to the Group III potassic and ultrapotassic rocks of Foley et al. (1987). The magma was derived from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Subduction-related sediment melts metasomatized the SCLM. Compositionally, The emplacement of shoshonitic magma and subsequent decompression happened at the slab break-off stage of continental collision (~990 Ma).

    • LI Ning, ZHANG Zhixin, YANG Fuquan, LIU Dongna

      2023,97(1):90-105, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14988


      The Xiaobaishitou gabbro-diorite pluton comprises a medium-grained gabbro-diorite suite and a fine-grained diorite suite, which intrude the Kawabulag Group in the East Tianshan Orogen of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). A combination of mineral chemistry, zircon U-Pb age, whole-rock geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopes, and in situ zircon Hf isotopes for newly found gabbro-diorite from the Xiaobaishitou district in the Central Tianshan Terrane (CTT) is presented to investigate the petrogenesis and tectonic or even crustal evolution of the East Tianshan Orogen. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U-Pb analyses indicate that the gabbro-diorite was formed at 324.7 ± 2.4 Ma. The isolated clinopyroxene formed under higher P-T-fO2 melt conditions (10.7–14.6 kbar; 1199–1269°C; high fO2) than those for the hornblende, plagioclase, and zircon (557–687°C; moderate fO2) in the gabbro-diorite, which reveals a multilevel, magmatic storage system. The gabbro-diorite is characterized by fractioned REE patterns, enriched LILEs (e.g., Ba and Pb), negative anomalies of HFSEs (e.g., Nb and Ta), and low La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios, which are typically indicative of crustal contamination and accounted for by subduction-related fluids. The rock also characterized by typical features of high compatible elements (MgO = 3.14–11.65 wt%, Cr = 1–157 ppm, Ni = 6–830 ppm), high Mg# (47–74), positive εHf(t) values (+5.1 to +10.3) and εNd(t) values (+2.3 to +4.4). These features suggest that the Xiaobaishitou gabbro-diorite was most likely derived from metasomatic mantle and contaminated minor crustal components. Taking into account the spatial and temporal distribution of the Carboniferous magmatic rocks in the CTT, we suggest the formation of the Xiaobaishitou gabbro-diorite was attributed to southward subduction of the Kangguer Ocean.

    • WANG Shuo, LIU Yunhua, YANG Benzhao, TAN Le, LI Xiaoyan, DENG Nan

      2023,97(1):106-121, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14926


      The Xiejiaba and Fuqiangbei plutons form part of the newly identified Neoproterozoic Niushan complex, which is located in the southern South Qinling belt (SQB). The plutons are compositionally similar, were emplaced at 750–711 Ma, and provide insights into Neoproterozoic tectonism within the South Qinling belt. The Xiejiaba pluton contains diorite, quartz diorite, granodiorite, and granite phases, all of which are sub-alkaline and have variable major element compositions with negative correlations between SiO2 and MgO, TFe2O3, Al2O3, CaO, TiO2 and P2O5. These rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and have negative Nb, Ta, P and Ti anomalies, all of which are indicative of arc-type magmatism. The Fuqiangbei pluton contains granitoids that are compositionally similar to the rocks in the Xiejiaba pluton. Samples from these plutons have similar εNd(t) values (1.24–5.99) but very variable (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.7010–0.7054). Combining these data with the geochemical data for these rocks suggests that the magmas that formed the Niushan complex were derived from the crust–mantle boundary. This, combined with the results of previous research, suggests that the transition from low pressure-low temperature to low pressure-high temperature conditions within a subduction zone caused melting during a period of late subduction and backarc extension. This constrain the timing of subduction within the South Qinling belt and the northern Yangtze Block (YB) to 750–711 Ma, with this Neoproterozoic subduction associated with an ocean to the north overprinting an existing continental rift-type tectonic setting within the northern margin of the Yangtze Block and the South Qinling belt.

    • ZHAO Linghao, ZENG Lingsen, GAO Li’e, HU Mingyue, SUN Dongyang, ZHANG Lifei

      2023,97(1):122-133, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14919


      The formation of titanite coronae after rutile is common in retrograde high- to ultrahigh-pressure meta-mafic rocks, which provides a good opportunity to address the geochemical behavior of HFSE in crustal environments. In the Sumdo eclogite, titanite occurs either as a corona around rutile grains or as semi-continuous veins cross-cutting the major foliation, whereas rutile grains occur either as inclusions in garnet or omphacite or as a relict core surrounded by titanite. Textural relationships and trace elements characteristics of rutile and titanite with different occurrences indicate that both minerals preferentially incorporate Nb and Hf over Ta and Zr in aqueous fluid. Moreover, the breakdown of omphacite and epidote could release substantial amounts of aqueous fluids enriched in Ca, Si, Fe and REE, which would react with rutile to form titanite coronae and veins. During this process, water-insoluble elements, like HFSE and HREE, behave like mobile elements, but they do not migrate substantially out of the system, instead, tending to react in situ. This suggests that the aqueous fluids released during the retrograde metamorphic reactions in mafic rocks could not substantially transfer fluid-immobile elements into the overlying mantle wedge in subduction environments.

    • WU Jun, LIU Ting, WANG Fangyue

      2023,97(1):134-148, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14958


      The Fuchuan ophiolite is located in the northeasternmost segment of the Neoproterozoic Jiangnan orogen and consists mainly of harzburgites, with minor dunites, pyroxenite and gabbro veins and dykes. In order to investigate the genesis and tectonic setting of the Fuchuan ophiolite and chromitites, in situ analyses of unaltered chromites and silicates were carried out. Trace element analyses of unaltered chromites from the Fuchuan chromitites indicate the parental magma is of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like origin, with the Ti/Fe3+#–Ga/Fe3+# diagram of chromites showing that the chromitites are a result of melt/rock interaction of MORB melts with mantle peridotites, and that the Fuchuan harzburgites present the dual features of MORB and supra-subduction zone peridotites (SSZP). Trace and rare earth element (REE) analyses of olivines and orthopyroxenes from the Fuchuan harzburgites hint at the possibility of mantle metasomatism influenced by SSZ-subducted fluids. Finally, integrating with previous study, the Fuchuan ophiolite and chromitites might have been formed in a back-arc spreading ridge between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks during the Neoproterozoic.

    • XIANG Jie, XIA Peng, XIAO Keyan, Emmanuel John M. CARRANZA, CHEN Jianping

      2023,97(1):149-162, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14992


      The identification of anomalies within stream sediment geochemical data is one of the fastest developing areas in mineral exploration. The various means used to achieve this objective make use of either continuous or discrete field models of stream sediment geochemical data. To map anomalies in a discrete field model of such data, two corrections are required: background correction and downstream dilution correction. Topography and geomorphology are important factors in variations of element content in stream sediments. However, few studies have considered, through the use of digital terrain analysis, the influence of geomorphic features in downstream dilution correction of stream sediment geochemical data. This study proposes and demonstrates an improvement to the traditional downstream dilution correction equation, based on the use of digital terrain analysis to map single-element anomalies in stream sediment geochemical landscapes. Moreover, this study compares the results of analyses using discrete and continuous field models of stream sediment geochemical data from the Xincang area, Tibet. The efficiency of the proposed methodology was validated against known mineral occurrences. The results indicate that catchment-based analysis outperforms interpolation-based analysis of stream sediment geochemical data for anomaly mapping. Meanwhile, the proposed modified downstream dilution correction equation proved more effective than the original equation. However, further testing of this modified downstream dilution correction is needed in other areas, in order to investigate its efficiency further.

    • Natasha KHAN, Awais ALI, Salahudin KHURSHEED, Kashif ALI, Muhammad SAEED

      2023,97(1):163-175, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14954


      The Tortonian–Calabrian strata of Offshore Makran (Pakistan) is investigated for the purpose of reservoir assessment. The stratigraphy and petrophysics indicate that the Neogene sediments have tight reservoir potential with porosities in the range of 3%–9% and 40%–50% water saturation. The mineralogical cross plots indicate a mixed lithology with an abundance of dolomite and calcite, together with minor quartz content and shale. The seismic interpretation demonstrates medium–high amplitude reflection patterns, mud diapirs coupled with onlapping strata and the occurrence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The BSRs are characterized by diminished amplitude, low continuity and exhibiting acoustic blanking zones. The high formation pressure results indicate overpressure zones, suggesting the occurrence of overpressured shales in the Jal Pari-1A. The presence of mud diapirs and gas chimneys are the result of tectonic forces acting at the junction of the Arabian, Indian and Eurasian plates, whereas, BSRs prove the existence of gas charged sediments supporting the formation of mud diapirism in the region. It is concluded that the high rates of sedimentation during the Neogene are likely to have contributed to the development of the high formation pressure. Revised mud weights, casing policies, pore pressure transients and geophysical inversion studies will help alleviate drilling risks in future exploration strategies.

    • FANG Xinxin, ZHU Guotao, YANG Yiming, LI Fengling, FENG Hong

      2023,97(1):176-189, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14941


      Reservoir classification is a key link in reservoir evaluation. However, traditional manual means are inefficient, subjective, and classification standards are not uniform. Therefore, taking the Mishrif Formation of the Western Iraq as an example, a new reservoir classification and discrimination method is established by using the K-means clustering method and the Bayesian discrimination method. These methods are applied to non-cored wells to calculate the discrimination accuracy of the reservoir type, and thus the main reasons for low accuracy of reservoir discrimination are clarified. The results show that the discrimination accuracy of reservoir type based on K-means clustering and Bayesian stepwise discrimination is strongly related to the accuracy of the core data. The discrimination accuracy rate of Type I, Type II, and Type V reservoirs is found to be significantly higher than that of Type III and Type IV reservoirs using the method of combining K-means clustering and Bayesian theory based on logging data. Although the recognition accuracy of the new methodology for the Type IV reservoir is low, with average accuracy the new method has reached more than 82% in the entire study area, which lays a good foundation for rapid and accurate discrimination of reservoir types and the fine evaluation of a reservoir.


      2023,97(1):190-206, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14984


      An integrated geological-petrophysical analysis of the rudist-bearing sequence of the Cretaceous Sarvak Formation is given one giant oilfield, and provides an improved understanding of this main reservoir in the Abadan Plain, in the Zagros Basin, SW Iran. The main objective of this study is to evaluate reservoir potential of the Sarvak Formation, and then to utilize the calibrated well log signature to correlate reservoir potential in un-cored wells. Eight main facies are recognized and categorized in five facies groups: lagoon, shoal, rudist-biostrome, slope, and shallow open marine, deposited on a shelf carbonate platform. Given the distribution of diagenetic products and their effects on pore systems, three diagenetic facies namely, (DF-1) low dissolution and cementation; (DF-2); high dissolution; and (DF-3) high cementation are differentiated. The initial sedimentary characteristics in combination with distribution of diagenetic products play an important role in reservoir quality heterogeneity. The effect of diagenetic processes related to disconformities mainly depends on the facies nature below these surfaces. Grain-dominated facies of shoal and rudist debris, observed below the Cenomanian–Turonian disconformity, are mostly characterized by high dissolution and interconnected pore systems. Finally, depositional and diagenetic facies in the studied wells are correlated by petrophysical well log data, leading to distribution of the reservoir zones. Data obtained can be utilized for efficient reservoir characterization of the Sarvak Formation and its equivalent units in the Arabian Plate.

    • QI Jiafu, LI Yong, XU Zhenping, YANG Shujiang, SUN Tong

      2023,97(1):207-225, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14963


      A thrust-fold belt consisting of a series of thrusts and buckling folds developed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata within the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin. In this study, a structural interpretation model of the Kuqa Depression is established and the Mesozoic proto-basin is reconstructed on the basis of outcrop geology along the basin margin, seismic, well-log and CEMP data. The model is called ‘delaminate contractional deformation’, which emphasizes the decoupling between the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, pre-Mesozoic and the basin-basement within the Kuqa Depression, but there is no unified detachment. The model has a shortening amount ranging from 12 km to 16 km and the depth involved in contractional deformation ranges from 21 km to 28 km. A prototype of the Mesozoic basin reconstructed by interpretation model is a sub-basin superposed on the transitional zone between the uplift at the northern edge of the Tarim Craton and the southern Tianshan orogenic wedge formed in the Hercynian orogeny. Lithospheric thermal and crustal isostatic activity after the Hercynian orogeny maybe the controlling dynamic factors of basin subsidence during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, the difference in rock mechanical properties between different levels, craton and orogenic wedge being the major cause of the ‘delaminate contractional deformation’ during the Himalayan orogeny.

    • MENG Wen, LIN Weiren, CHEN Qunce, LI Yonghua

      2023,97(1):226-242, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14965


      In situ stress measurement data was analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial stress variations at shallow depths in the Longmenshan fault zone (LMSF), prior to and following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (WCEQ). Analysis of the stress field related to fault strength and behavior is useful for understanding geodynamic processes and conducting hazard assessments. The shallow stress changes after the WCEQ show clear along-strike variations. Degrees of stress orientation rotations have a negative correlation with the horizontal principal stress ratios and the WCEQ apparently reduced the magnitude difference between horizontal principal stresses. Taking stress magnitudes and orientation distribution relative to the fault strike into account, we propose an intermediate-strength of LMSF, with a friction coefficient generally constrained between 0.35 and 0.6. In addition, high-pressure fluids in the fault zone reduce the effective normal stress and to a certain degree weaken the fault strength. The accumulated stress over a certain period following release of the WCEQ indicates the start of another earthquake cycle. The changing crustal stress field makes the LMSF stable or slipping optimally during geodynamic processes. The segmentation feature of the shallow crustal stress field in the LMSF may imply a different tectonic loading and seismic release processes along the fault. The southwestern section to the epicenter of the WCEQ favors the occurrence of future earthquakes, as high μm in a state of critical failure was present in this area, which indicates that the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes did not release the accumulated stress to a sufficient extent there.

    • TANG Ruifeng, ZHANG Jizhi, DU Yao, WEN Siying, ZHONG Bo, JIANG Huachuan

      2023,97(1):243-255, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14920


      An analysis of Thalassinoides ichnofabrics in the Cambrian Stage 4 Longwangmiao Formation from six sections near Chonqing in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Block of South China was conducted to promote the understanding of the paleoenvironment of this period. Thalassinoides ichnofabrics are divided into three types according to their morphology, bioturbation index, abundance and related parameters: banded, mottled and grid. The completeness of the ichnofabrics gradually increases from banded to grid, the scale of the burrows expands, and the structure transitions from two-dimensional to three-dimensional. Malacostracans, phyllocarids and enteropneusts are the most likely burrowers. The findings reveal that frequent changes in paleoenvironmental conditions are the dominant factors for generating the various Thalassinoides ichnofabrics. The changes in depositional rate, substrate properties and nutrient levels affect the behavior and building patterns of the burrowers, thus leading to the diversity of Thalassinoides ichnofabrics. In the lower Longwangmiao Formation beds, many incomplete Thalassinoides burrow systems were built in the substrates with terrigenous detrital minerals, revealing significant environmental pressure on the burrowers. Later, the Thalassinoides burrows went into complete three-dimensional boxworks. At the end of the stage, bioturbation almost disappeared, which indicates that burrowers were finding it difficult to survive in the harsh environment.

    • Haris Ahmed KHAN, Ali Asghar SHAHID, Muhammad Jahangir KHAN, Taher ZOUAGHI, Maria Dolores ALVAREZ, Syed Danial Mehdi NAQVI

      2023,97(1):256-268, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14863


      This research is focused on the analysis of the sequence stratigraphic units of F3 Block, within a wave-dominated delta of Plio–Pleistocene age. Three wells of F3 block and a 3D seismic data, are utilized in this research. The conventional techniques of 3D seismic interpretation were utilized to mark the 11 surfaces on the seismic section. Integration of seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation, using well logs, and subsequent 3D geostatistical modeling, using seismic data, aided to evaluate the shallow hydrocarbon traps. The resulting models were obtained using System Tract and Facies models, which were generated by using sequential stimulation method and their variograms made by spherical method, moreover, these models are validated via histograms. The CDF curve generated from upscaling of well logs using geometric method, shows a good relation with less percentage of errors (1 to 2 for Facies and 3 to 4 for System Tract models) between upscaled and raw data that complements the resulted models. These approaches help us to delineate the best possible reservoir, lateral extent of system tracts (LST and/or HST) in the respective surface, and distribution of sand and shale in the delta. The clinoform break points alteration observed on seismic sections, also validates the sequence stratigraphic interpretation. The GR log-based Facies model and sequence stratigraphy-based System Tract model of SU-04-2 showed the reservoir characteristics, presence of sand bodies and majorly LST, respectively, mainly adjacent to the main fault of the studied area. Moreover, on the seismic section, SU-04-2 exhibits the presence of gas pockets at the same location that also complements the generated Facies and System Tract models. The generated models can be utilized for any similar kind of study and for the further research in the F3 block reservoir characterization.

    • YIN Senlin, ZHU Baiyu, GUO Haiping, XU Zhenhua, LI Xiaoshan, WU Xiaojun, CHEN Yukun, JIANG Zhibin

      2023,97(1):269-285, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14967


      Three-dimensional unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) oblique photogrammetric data were used to infer mountainous gravel braided river lithofacies, lithofacies associations and architectural elements. Hierarchical architecture and lithofacies associations with detailed lithofacies characterizations were comprehensively described to document the architectural model, architectural element scale and gravel particle scale. (1) Nine lithofacies (i.e., Gmm, Gcm, Gcc, Gci, Gcl, Ss, Sm, Fsm and Fl) were identified and classified as gravel, sand and fine matrix deposits. These are typical depositional features of a mountainous dryland gravel-braided river. (2) Three architectural elements were identified, including channel (CH), gravel bar (GB) and overbank (OB). CH can be further divided into flow channel and abandoned channel, while GB consists of Central Gravel bar (CGB) and Margin Gravel bar (MGB). (3) The gravel bar is the key architectural element of the gravel braided river, with its geological attributes. The dimensions of GBs and their particles are various, but exhibit good relationships with each other. The grain size of GB decreases downstream, but the dimensions of GB do not. The bank erosion affects the GB dimensions, whereas channel incision and water flow velocity influence the grain size of GB. The conclusions can be applied to the dryland gravel braided river studies in tectonically active areas.

    • 2023,97(1):285-285, DOI:


    • WANG Chao, TAO Renbiao, Jesse B. WALTERS, REN Tianshi, NAN Jingbo, ZHANG Lifei

      2023,97(1):288-308, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15045


      The geologic production of abiotic organic compounds has been the subject of increasing scientific attention due to their use in the global carbon flux balance, by chemosynthetic biological communities, and for energy resources. Extensive analysis of methane (CH4) and other organics in diverse geologic settings, combined with thermodynamic modelings and laboratory simulations, have yielded insights into the distribution of specific abiotic organic molecules on Earth and the favorable conditions and pathways under which they form. This updated and comprehensive review summarizes published results of petrological, thermodynamic, and experimental investigations of possible pathways for the formation of particular species of abiotic simple hydrocarbon molecules such as CH4, and of complex hydrocarbon systems, e.g., long-chain hydrocarbons and even solid carbonaceous matters, in various geologic processes, distinguished into three classes: (1) pre- to early planetary processes; (2) mantle and magmatic processes; and (3) the gas/water-rock reaction processes in low-pressure ultramafic rock and high-pressure subduction zone systems. We not only emphasize how organics are abiotically synthesized but also explore the role or changes of organics in evolutionary geological environments after synthesis, such as phase transitions or organic-mineral interactions. Correspondingly, there is an urgent need to explore the diversity of abiotic organic compounds prevailing on Earth.

    • GUI Weibin, SHEN Kewei, LIU Jin

      2023,97(1):309-315, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15040


      CaCO3 is an important component of marine sediments and one of the major deep-carbon carriers at subduction zones. Some subducted CaCO3 can be dissolved in subduction fluids and recycled back to the surface via arc volcanoes degassing. At the same time, there still remain large amounts of CaCO3 and its reaction products, which could be further transported into Earth’s deep interior. These internal processes link atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere with the deep solid Earth, modifying the environments of our planet. In this review, we summarize current understanding from high pressure-temperature experiments and field petrological observations on the physical and chemical properties of CaCO3. In particular, the phase stability and reactions of CaCO3 largely control the migration and reservation of oxidized carbon in subducting slabs. Finally, we present several critical but unsolved questions on CaCO3 subducting in the deep mantle.

    • LIU Zhicheng, ZHANG Lifei

      2023,97(1):316-326, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15046


      The carbon cycle is an important process that regulates Earth’s evolution. We compare two typical periods, in the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic, in which many geological events occurred. It remains an open question when modern plate tectonics started on Earth and how it has influenced the carbon cycle through time. In the Paleoproterozoic, intense weathering in a highly CO2 and CH4 rich atmosphere caused more nutritional?elements to be carried into the ocean. Terrestrial input boosted high biological productivity, deposition of sediments and the formation of an altered oceanic crust, which may have promoted an increase in the oxygen content. Sediment lubrication and a decrease in mantle potential temperature made cold and deep subduction possible, which carried more carbon into the deep mantle. Carbon can be stored in the mantle as diamond and carbonated mantle rocks, being released by arc and mid-ocean ridge outgassing at widely different times. From the Paleoproterozoic through the Neoproterozoic to the Phanerozoic, the carbon cycle has promoted the evolution of a habitable Earth.

    • XU Huiyuan, LIU Quanyou, JIN Zhijun, ZHU Dongya, MENG Qingqiang, LI Pengpeng, ZHU Biqing

      2023,97(1):327-336, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15039


      Continental epithermal ore deposits are commonly associated with sedimentary organic matter, oils or solid bitumen. These organics embedded in mineral deposits can convey valuable information of the ore genesis. However, the extent to which the formation of ore minerals was recorded by organic compounds remains largely unknown, as also is how metal-rich ores interfere with the molecular proxies in the temperature regime envisaged for hydrothermal activity. The molecular compositional changes of various polycyclic aromatic steranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and compounds derived from the Jinding Pb/Zn deposit, SW China provide new data. Aliphatic regular steranes are present as traces. The transformation from polycyclic aromatic steranes to unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is observed to show an increased trend with increasing hydrothermal alteration levels; this is consistent with the transformation from unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to heterocyclic compounds. Dehydrocyclization (aromatization) of polycyclic biological compounds and hydrodecyclization (dearomatization) of polycyclic aromatic compounds are two important reaction pathways in hydrothermal systems with moderate temperature. This detailed investigation of organic-inorganic interactions of two groups of polycyclic compounds with metal-rich ores provides insights into the questions on how and to what extent the formation of Pb/Zn deposits can be recorded by organics. This work will improve our understanding of carbon reduction, oxidation or condensation in the deep Earth and the carbon exchange between the Earth’s crust and mantle, and may shed light on the processes for ultra-deep hydrocarbon exploration.

    • ZHANG Lijuan, ZHANG Lifei, LI Xiaowei, WANG Xiao

      2023,97(1):337-349, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15041


      Natural gas, consisting primarily of methane (CH4), has become a major source of clean energy in modern society in many parts of the globe. Recent experimental observations and discoveries of deep-sourced abiotic CH4 in cold subduction zones indicate the important ability of cold subducted slabs to generate natural gas reservoirs. However, most CH4 flux and reservoirs remain unknown and their potential is overlooked in global carbon flux estimations. Massive abiotic CH4-rich fluid inclusions (FIs) in garnet and omphacite from ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites have been found in the Western Tianshan (WT) UHP metamorphic belt, which provides one ideal case for quantification of abiotic CH4 stored in the cold subducted crust. By two methods, we assess the abiotic CH4 content stored in the Chinese WT HP– UHP metamorphic belt. Our calculations show that at least 113 Mt CH4 isstored in the WT eclogites. We also discuss the implications for CH4 reservoirs in subduction zones worldwide and speculate that the cold subduction zones may represent one of the largest, yet overlooked, sources of abiotic CH4 on Earth, which should not be ignored in the global natural resource and carbon flux estimations.

    • HU Jun, XU Liangxu, LIU Jin, YUE Donghui

      2023,97(1):350-357, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15042


      The high-pressure behavior of deep carbonate dictates the state and dynamics of oxidized carbon in the Earth's mantle, playing a vital role in the global carbon cycle and potentially influencing long-term climate change. Optical absorption and Raman spectroscopic measurements were carried out on two natural carbonate samples in diamond-anvil cells up to 60 GPa. Mg-substitution in high-spin siderite FeCO3 increases the crystal field absorption band position by approximately 1000 cm?1, but such an effect is marginal at >40 GPa when entering the low-spin state. The crystal field absorption band of dolomite cannot be recognized upon compression to 45.8 GPa at room temperature but, in contrast, the high-pressure polymorph of dolomite exhibits a strong absorption band at frequencies higher than (Mg,Fe)CO3 in the low-spin state by 2000–2500 cm?1. Additionally, these carbonate minerals show more complicated features for the absorption edge, decreasing with pressure and undergoing a dramatic change through the spin crossover. The optical and vibrational properties of carbonate minerals are highly correlated with iron content and spin transition, indicating that iron is preferentially partitioned into low-spin carbonates. These results shed new light on how carbonate minerals evolve in the mantle, which is crucial to decode the deep carbon cycle.

    • XU Xin, TIAN Wei, ZHANG Lifei, LI Huijuan

      2023,97(1):358-375, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15043


      It is generally believed that the lithospheric mantle and the mantle transition zone are important carbon reservoirs. However, the location of carbon storage in Earth's interior and the reasons for carbon enrichment remain unclear. In this study, we report CO2-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the mantle xenoliths of late Cenozoic basalts from the Penglai area, Hainan Province, which may shed some light on the carbon enrichment process in the lithospheric mantle. We also present a detailed petrological and geochemical investigation of the late Cenozoic basalts and mantle xenoliths from northern Hainan Island. The collected samples of late Cenozoic Hainan Island basalts belong to both alkaline and subalkaline series, showing fractionated REE patterns with high (La/Yb)N values of 3.52–11.77, which are typical for OIB. Based on Al-in-olivine thermometry, the temperatures estimated for the mantle xenoliths can be divided into two groups. One group has temperatures of less than 1050°C, and the other group has temperature ranging from 1050°C to 1282°C. Clinopyroxene (La/Yb)N–Ti/Eu and clinopyroxene Ca/Al–Mg# diagrams indicate that the mantle peridotite experienced metasomatism from both silicate and carbonate melts. Melt inclusions in the olivine of mantle xenoliths include (1) CO2 bubble–rich melt inclusions; (2) multiphase melt inclusions (glass + CO2 bubble + daughter minerals); (3) pure glass melt inclusions. Magnesite is a daughter mineral in the olivine-hosted melt inclusions, which could be interpreted as a secondary mineral formed by the interactions of CO2-rich fluids with an olivine host, due to post-entrapment effects. The glasses in olivine-hosted melt inclusions have high SiO2 contents (60.21–77.72 wt%). Our results suggest that a considerable amount of CO2-rich melt inclusions are captured in the lithospheric mantle during metasomatism. The lithospheric mantle can therefore act as is a ‘carbon trap’, with much CO2 being absorbed by the lithospheric mantle in this way.

    • HE Yanxin, LIU Jianping, WANG Lei, TIAN Wei

      2023,97(1):376-392, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.15044


      The transportation of magma in sedimentary basins often occurs through extensive dyke-sill networks. The role of sills on the plumbing system in rifted margins and the impact of sills on hydrocarbon reservoirs of prospective sedimentary basins has long been an area of great industrial interest and scientific debate. Based on 2D seismic reflection, we present data on how the sills emplaced to form a magmatic plumbing system of the volcanic system for the Zhongjiannan Basin (ZJNB). The results show that sixty-nine sills and fourteen forced folds have been identified. The distribution and geometry of the sills suggest that magma flowed from west to east and then ascended to near the surface. The onlap relationship of the forced folds indicates that the timing of magmatic activities can be constrained at ca. 0.2 Ma. The spatial and temporal occurrences of intrusions imply that the strong post-rift magmatism in ZJNB was associated with the Hainan mantle plume arising from the core-mantle boundary. Furthermore, these forced folds could produce several types of hydrocarbon traps, due to accommodation through bending and uplift of the overlying rock and free surface, but it is critical to evaluate the effect of such emplacement when setting exploration targets.

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    Volume 97,2023 Issue 1
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    • Late Quaternary Slip Behavior of the Jinqianghe Fault in the Middle Qilian–Haiyuan Fault Zone, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

      LIANG Shumin, ZHENG Wenjun, CHEN Gan, ZHANG Peizhen, ZHANG Dongli, BI Haiyun, YANG Xue, ZHANG Yipeng, DUAN Lei, LU Bentian


      The Qilian–Haiyuan fault zone in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau has been the source of strong earthquakes in the region. In its middle segment, the Jinqianghe fault is an important active fault within the Tianzhu seismic gap; however, little is known about its slip behavior. To present a new horizontal displacement distribution along this fault, we used WorldView-2 stereo pairs and unmanned aerial vehicle-based photogrammetry to construct digital elevation models to obtain a detailed tectono-geomorphic interpretation and geomorphic offsets. The offset marker measurements yielded 135 geomorphic displacements and 8 offset clusters. Radiocarbon dating was used to establish the regional age sequence of the geomorphic units in offset fluvial terraces at four study sites. The displacements and ages linked the offset clusters with the geomorphic unit sequence; the Holocene strike-slip rate of the Jinqianghe fault was estimated to 4.8–5.6 mm/a at ~4–12 ka and 2.9–4.7 mm/a from ~4 ka. Three recent earthquakes (with a recurrence interval of ~1000 years) represent an active seismic period, revealing the potential seismic hazard along this fault because it has not ruptured in the last 1500 years.

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    • The Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution of the South Altun Orogenic Belt: Insights from Geochemical, Zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf Data from Granitic Rocks of the Mangya Area, NW China

      xunan, Wu Cailai, Liu Hewu, Song Shuaibing, Zhang Guisheng, Zheng Kun, Gao Dong


      The South Altun is a significant structural unit within the Altun Orogenic Belt in northwestern China. In this paper, we combine petrological and geochemical analyses with zircon LA–ICP–MS U–Pb and Lu–Hf data from the Mangya plutons, to understand the Paleozoic tectonic history of the South Altun Orogenic Belt. The Paleozoic magmatic events that formed the Mangya granitic rocks are divided into three episodes: 494–458 Ma; 450–436 Ma; and 416–404 Ma. We propose that the 484–458 Ma plutons record large-scale magmatic events associated with the northward subduction of the oceanic crust of the South Altun Ocean. Subduction-related magmatism produced voluminous high–K calc–alkaline series, high Sr/Y granitic rocks. After closure of the South Altun Ocean, collision of the Qaidam Block with the South Altun Continental Block from 450–436 Ma was driven by slab drag, and high–K calc–alkaline series, I-type granites were produced. Eventually, the subducted oceanic crust delaminated, and the 416–404 Ma A-type granites formed in a post–orogenic extensional environment.

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    • Measurements of Sulfur Isotope Composition on Ultrasmall (80 nanomole) Sulfide and Sulfate Samples by EA-IRMS

      WU Xiaopei, FAN Changfu*, HU Bin*, GAO Jianfei, LI Yanhe


      The traditional method for sulfur isotope measurement using EA-IRMS commonly requires sulfur content greater than 2 μmol. Such large sample size limits its application to low-S materials., and is mainly due to the ineffective utilization of sample gas, almost 99.7% of which is discarded with carrier gas through the split port of continuous-flow interface. A modified EA-IRMS system with a gas chromatographic (GC) column and a custom-built cryogenic concentration device is used in this study. We measured six reference materials to test the performance of this method. The results were consistent with those obtained through traditional EA-IRMS. Precisions ranging from ±0.24‰–±0.76‰ (1σ) can be obtained with samples equivalent to ~80 nmol sulfur, which were similar to an alternative method using absorption column. Our improved method is a powerful tool for sulfur isotope measurement in ultrasmall sulfide and sulfate samples, and can be further applied to carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of samples at about 100 nmol level.

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    • Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Kwangsian orogen: Constrains from geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the early Paleozoic peraluminous granites and coexisting rocks in Northern Guangdong, SE China

      Xiaohui Jia, Xiaodi Wang, Xiaofei Qiu


      This paper presents whole–rock major and trace elemental and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions, and zircon U–Pb geochronological data of the peraluminous granitic intrusion and coexisting granitiod rocks in the northern Guangdong province, South China, in order to investigate their source composition, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The Qingzhou granodiorites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with A/CNK values of 1.05–1.96. They have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (ISr= 0.7087– 0.7148), low εNd(t) values (-11.2 to -10.1), and varied zircon εHf(t) values of -13.4 to +4.81. By contrast, the Damaoshan granodiorites are metaluminous (A/CNK= 0.79– 0.94) in composition, with ISr values of 0.7083 to 0.7110, εNd(t) values of -7.92 to -5.28 and zircon εHf(t) values of -8.69 to -2.06. The Gaoshou quartz diorites are metaluminous–peraluminous with A/CNK of 0.87– 1.24. Their ISr values rang from 0.7104 to 0.7111 and εNd(t) values from -9.64 to -8.63. Geochemical data and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope compositions indicate that the Qingzhou, Damaoshan and Gaoshou intrusions are mainly derived from partial melting of metagreywackes, tonalitic rocks and amphibolites, respectively. Combined with the previous studies, these prealuminous granites formed in syn–orogen compression environment. In this paper, we test to provide a new way of thinking for the petrogenesis of the early Paleozoic granites in South China Block, and the regional crust restructure. A broader vision and more geological evidences are required to reveal the triggering factor of the Kwangsian orogen.

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    Volume 97,2023 Issue 1
    • Birendra P. Singh, Kapesa Lokho, Naval Kishore, Nancy Virmani

      2014,88(2):380-393, DOI:


      A new locality bearing ichnofossils of the Cruziana Assemblage Zone-III from the Mussoorie syncline, Lesser Himalaya, is located in rocks of Member-B of the Dhaulagiri Formation, Tal Group, exposed along the Maldewta-Chhimoli fresh road cut section. The site yielded ichnofossils Bergaueria perata, Cochlichnus anguineus, ?Diplocraterion isp., Dimorphichnus obliquus, diplichnitiform Cruziana bonariensis, Diplichnites gouldi, Glockeria isp., Helminthopsis isp., Monomorphichnus lineatus, Phycodes palmatum, Palaeophycus striatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites montanus, Treptichnus cf. T. pedum, scratch marks and an undetermined worm impression. An Early Cambrian age (Cambrian Series 2) is assigned to the ichnofossil-bearing strata based on the stratigraphic position between the Drepanuroides and Palaeoolenus trilobite zones. A revised Cambrian ichnofossil zonation is presented for the Tal Group of the Mussoorie syncline. Together with their occurrence on rippled surfaces, and the lateral displacement of some trackways (due to current action), a sub-aqueous shallow-marine depositional setting is proposed for the rocks of Member-B.

    • ZHU Song, WU Zhenhan, ZHAO Xitao, LI Jianping, WANG Hua

      2012,86(1):266-283, DOI:


      Many moraines formed between Daduka and Chibai in the Tsangpo River valley since Middle Pleistocene. A prominent set of lacustrine and alluvial terraces on the valley margin along both the Tsangpo and Nyang Rivers formed during Quaternary glacial epoch demonstrate lakes were created by damming of the river. Research was conducted on the geological environment, contained sediments, spatial distribution, timing, and formation and destruction of these paleolakes. The lacustrine sediments 14C (10537±268 aBP at Linzhi Brick and Tile Factory, 22510±580 aBP and 13925±204 aBP at Bengga, 21096±1466 aBP at Yusong) and a series of ESR (electron spin resonance) ages at Linzhi town and previous data by other experts, paleolakes persisted for 691~505 kaBP middle Pleistocene ice age, 75–40 kaBP the early stage of last glacier, 27–8 kaBP Last Glacier Maximum (LGM), existence time of lakes gradually shorten represents glacial scale and dam moraine supply potential gradually cut down, paleolakes and dam scale also gradually diminished. This article calculated the average lacustrine sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake in LGM was 12.5 mm/a, demonstrates Mount Namjagbarwa uplifted strongly at the same time, the sedimentary rate of Gega paleolake is more larger than that of enclosed lakes of plateau inland shows the climatic variation of Mount Namjagbarwa is more larger and plateau margin uplifted more quicker than plateau inland. This article analyzed formation and decay cause about the Zelunglung glacier on the west flank of Mount Namjagbarwa got into the Tsangpo River valley and blocked it for tectonic and climatic factors. There is a site of blocking the valley from Gega to Chibai. This article according to moraines and lacustrine sediments yielded paleolakes scale: the lowest lake base altitude 2850 m, the highest lake surface altitude 3585 m, 3240 m and 3180 m, area 2885 km2, 820 km2 and 810 km2, lake maximum depth of 735 m, 390 m and 330 m. We disclose the reason that previous experts discovered there were different age moraines dividing line of altitude 3180 m at the entrance of the Tsangpo Grand Canyon is dammed lake erosive decay under altitude 3180 m moraines in the last glacier era covering moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene, top 3180 m in the last glacier moraine remained because ancient dammed lakes didn’t erode it under 3180 m moraines in the early ice age of late Pleistocene exposed. The reason of the top elevation 3585 m moraines in the middle Pleistocene ice age likes that of altitude 3180 m. There were three times dammed lakes by glacier blocking the Tsangpo River during Quaternary glacial period. During other glacial and interglacial period the Zelunglung glacier often extended the valley but moraine supplemental speed of the dam was smaller than that of fluvial erosion and moraine movement, dam quickly disappeared and didn’t form stable lake.

    • WANG Runfu, XU Shichao, WU Xiaochun, LI Chun, WANG Suozhu

      2013,87(5):1185-1197, DOI:


      Shansisuchus shansisuchus Young, 1964 was restudied on the basis of a new specimen. Some anatomical features that were either briefly or not described at all in the original study were detailed. The new specimen not only provides further information on the skull anatomy and the vertebral column but also expands the range of the geographical distribution of the taxon. With new information, the diagnosis of S. shansisuchus was emended and its phylogenetic relationships were further analyzed. S. shansisuchus differs from other archosauriforms primarily in the presence of a large subnarial fenestra anterior to the antorbital fenestra, tongue-in-groove articulations between the ascending process of the premaxilla and nasal and between the premaxilla and maxilla, a tall and posterodorsally directed ascending process of the maxilla, a knee-shaped process of the postorbital projecting into the orbit, a broad descending process of squamosal distally well forked and a large, deeply bow-shaped intercentrum tightly anchoring/capping the sharp ventral edges of two neighboring centra together in cervical and at least first eight dorsal vertebrae. With additional information derived from the new specimen, the phylogenetic relationships of S. shansisuchus were reanalyzed; it is closely related to Erythrosuchus-Vjushkovia clade.

    • CHEN Lan1, 2, 3, * , YI Haisheng4, 5, TSAI Louis Loung-Yie2, XU Guiwen1, DA Xuejuan1, LIN Andrew Tien-Shun3

      2013,87(2):540-554, DOI:


      The Biluo Co and Amdo 114 station, northern Tibet, cropping out the Early Toarcian and Middle-Late Tithonian (Jurassic) organic-rich black shales, have been a focus to petroleum geologists in discussing their oil-producing potential. This paper first reports the trace elements and rare earth elements to discuss the paleoenvironments, redox conditions and sedimentary mechanisms of those black shales. Both sections exhibit variation in trace element abundances with concentrations <0.1 ppm to 760 ppm, mostly enriched in V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ba and U. Element ratios of Ni/Co, V/Cr, U/Th and V/(V+Ni) plus U were used to identify redox conditions. The shale-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns are characterized by the flat-shale type with instable Ce anomalies and very weekly positive Eu anomalies. Positive Ceanom values are significant with values varying between –0.064 and 0.029 in Biluo Co, which may be interpreted as release of REE and input of riverine terrestrial matter with rich Ce (resulting in pH change) during the anoxic conditions. In the middle parts of Amdo 114 station, distinct negative Ceanom values are observed (?0.238 to ?0.111) and associated surface water warming were interpreted as being related to a major sea level rise. In contrast, the formation of the black shales in the lower and upper part of the studied succession took place during a cooler (Ceanom values >–0.10), lower surface water productivity, and lower sea-level stage. Thus, we emphasize the role of different factors that control the formation of local and regional black shales. The most important factors are sea-level fluctuations and increasing productivity.

    • CHEN Jitao, LEE Jeong-Hyun

      2014,88(1):260-275, DOI:


      This paper reviews the current progress and problems in the study of microbialites and microbial carbonates. Microbialites and microbial carbonates, formed during growth of microbes by their calcification and binding of detrital sediment, have recently become one of the most popular geological topics. They occur throughout the entire geological history, and bear important theoretical and economic significances due to their complex structures and formative processes. Microbialites are in place benthic microbial buildups, whereas microbial carbonates can be classified into two categories: stabilized microbial carbonates (i.e., carbonate microbialites, such as stromatolites and thrombolites) and mobilized microbial carbonates (i.e., microbial carbonate grains, such as oncoids and microbial lumps). Various texture, structures, and morphologies of microbialites and microbial carbonates hamper the systematic description and classification. Moreover, complex calcification pathways and diagenetic modifications further obscure the origin of some microbialites and microbial carbonates. Recent findings of abundant sponge spicules in previously identified “microbialites” challenge the traditional views about the origins of these “microbialites” and their implications to reef evolution. Microbialites and microbial carbonates did not always flourish in the aftermath of extinction events, which, together with other evidences, suggests that they are affected not only by metazoans but also by other geological factors. Their growth, development, and demise are also closely related to sea-level changes, due to their dependence on water depth, clarity, nutrient, and sunlight. Detailed studies on microbialites and microbial carbonates throughout geological history would certainly help understand causes and effects of major geological events as well as the co-evolution of life and environment.

    • SHEN Caizhi, Lü Junchang, LIU Sizhao, Martin KUNDRáT, Stephen L. BRUSATTE, GAO Hailong

      2017,91(3):763-780, DOI:


      A new troodontid dinosaur, Daliansaurus liaoningensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on a nearly complete specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, China. This well preserved skeleton provides important new details of the anatomy for Liaoning troodontids, and gives new insight into their phylogenetic relationships and evolution. Daliansaurus is distinguished from other troodontids by an enlarged ungual on pedal digit IV, which is approximately the same size as the sickle-shaped second ungual, and is differentiated from other Liaoning troodontids by a number of characters of the skull, manus, pelvis, and hindlimb. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Daliansaurus within a subclade of Liaoning troodontids that also includes Sinovenator, Sinusonasus, and Mei. We erect a name for this group—Sinovenatorinae—and argue that it reflects a localized radiation of small-bodied troodontids in the Early Cretaceous of eastern Asia, similar to previously recognized radiations of Liaoning dromaeosaurids and avialans. As more Liaoning theropods are discovered, it is becoming apparent that small, feathered paravians were particularly diverse during the Early Cretaceous, and future work is needed to clarify how this diversity arose, which species coexisted, and how these numerous species partitioned niches.

    • Richard H. SILLITOE

      2014,88(z2):597-598, DOI:


      Please refer to the attachment(s) for more details

    • DU Chunguo, WANG Jianjun, ZHANG Jun, WANG Ping, XUE Mei, ZHOU Huayao

      2014,88(3):865-877, DOI:


      On the basis of field observations, microscopic thin-sections and laboratory data analysis of ten faults in Xuanhan County area, northeastern Sichuan Basin, central China, the internal and megascopic structures and tectonite development characteristics are mainly controlled by the geomechanical quality in brittle formation of the Changxing-Feixianguan Formation. The fluid transportation performance difference between the faults formed by different geomechanics or different structural parts of the same fault are controlled by the megascopic structure and tectonite development characteristics. For instance, the extension fault structure consists of a tectonite breccia zone and an extension fracture zone. Good fluid transportation performance zones are the extension fracture zone adjacent to the tectonite breccia zone and the breccia zone formed at the early evolutionary stage. The typical compression fault structure consists of a boulder-clay zone or zones of grinding gravel rock, compression foliation, tectonite lens, and dense fracture development. The dense fracture development zone is the best fluid transporting area at a certain scale of the compression fault, and then the lens, grinding gravel rock zone and compression foliation zones are the worst areas for hydrocarbon migration. The typical tensor-shear fault with a certain scale can be divided into boulder-clay or grinding gravel rock zones of the fault, as well as a pinnate fractures zone and a derivative fractures zone. The grinding gravel rock zone is the worst one for fluid transportation. Because of the fracture mesh connectivity and better penetration ability, the pinnate fractures zone provides the dominant pathway for hydrocarbon vertical migration along the tensor-shear fault.

    • MA Shengming, ZHU Lixin, LIU Chongmin, XI Mingjie, TANG Shixin

      2013,87(3):843-857, DOI:


      This paper discusses the enrichment and depletion regularities for porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposits in different regions and varied deposit genetic types in the same area, taking three porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposits (i.e., the Chengmenshan in Jiangxi, Wunugetushan in Inner Mongolia, Baishantang in Gansu) and two copper deposits in Gansu Province (the Huitongshan skarn deposit and Gongpoquan composite deposit) as case studies. The results show that porphyry Cu-Mo deposits or skarn copper deposits include both enrichment of the ore-forming elements and associated elements, and depletion of some lithophile dispersed elements, rare earth elements (REE) and some major elements. And the depleted elements vary with deposits, having generality and their own features. On a deposit scale, the positive anomalies of enriched elements and negative anomalies of depleted elements follow in a sequence to comprise regular anomaly models of spatial structures. The exploration in the Tongchang deposit in Jiangxi and Huitongshan deposit in Gansu suggests that anomaly models play a key role in the identification of mineral occurrences and deposits compared to one single enriched element anomaly. And the anomaly models exert a critical effect on the optimization of prospecting targets and their potential evaluation.

    • Lü Junchang

      2010,84(2):241-246, DOI:


      A new boreopterid pterosaur: Zhenyuanopterus longirostris gen. et sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning is erected, based on the complete skeleton with a skull and lower jaws preserved. It is characterized by: a large boreopterid pterosaur with a high number of teeth, where the anterior teeth are much larger than posterior ones; the length of the dorsal + sacral vertebrae is nearly half the length of the skull; ratio of the length of the humerus to metacarpal IV is approximately 91% and the, humerus, femur and third wing phalanx are all equal in length and the feet are specially small. It represents the largest boroepterid pterosaur discovered from western Liaoning and its surrounding areas so far

    • WANG Sufen, ZHANG Tingshan, ZHOU Jixian, HU Yu

      2017,91(1):320-340, DOI:


      The distribution characteristics of the oil-water contact are the basis for the reservoir exploration and development and reserves evaluation. The reservoir with a tilted oil-water contact has a unique formation mechanism, and the understanding of its distribution and formation mechanism will directly affect the evaluations for the reservoir type, well deployment, selection of well pattern and type, determination of test section, and reserves evaluation. Based on the analysis of reservoir characteristics, petrophysical properties and geological structure in 40 reservoirs worldwide with tilted oil-water contacts, the progress of the research on the formation mechanisms of titled oil-water contacts is summarized in terms of the hydrodynamic conditions, reservoir heterogeneity, neotectonic movement and oil-gas exploitation. According to the formation mechanism of tilted oil-water contacts and the needs of exploration research, different aspects of research methods are summarized and classified, such as the calculation of equipotential surfaces for oil and water in the formation, analysis of formation pressure and analysis of reservoir physical properties and so on. Based upon statistical analysis, it is suggested that the degree of the inclination of the oil-water contact be divided based on the dip of oil-water contact (DipTOWC). The tilted oil-water contact is divided into three categories: large dip (DipTOWC≥55 m/km), medium dip (4 m/km≤DipTOWC<55 m/km), and small dip (DipTOWC<4 m/km). The classification and evaluation method can be combined with structure amplitude and reservoir property. The formation mechanism of domestic and international reservoirs with tilted oil-water contacts are summarized in this paper, which have important significance in guiding the exploration and development of the oilfield with tilted oil-water contacts, reserves evaluation, and well deployment.

    • Mahboobeh JAMSHIDI BADR, Fariborz MASOUDI, Alan S. COLLINS, Ali SORBI

      2012,86(1):48-64, DOI:


      The Soursat metamorphic complex (SMC) in northwestern Iran is part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt. The complex is composed of different metamorphic and plutonic rocks, but is dominated by metapelites composed of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolite, cordierite, and andalusite. Porphyroblasts in schists have the same fabric, and three stages of schistosity are present. The internal schistosity (Sn) inclusion trails are also offset by conjugate sets of extensional schistosity (Sn+1) and a second (Sn+2) that crenulates (Sn+1). Polyphase metamorphisms are present in the complex. Garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and fibrolite assemblage preserves conditions during the M1 metamorphic event. This assemblage yields a P–t estimate of 645±11°C and 6.5±0.5 kbar. Other samples of the central part of SMC contain cordierite and andalusite (M2) overgrowth that yields a P–t estimate of 532±33°C and 2.1±1.1 kbar.

    • ZHENG Yadong, ZHANG Qing, HOU Quanlin

      2015,89(4):1133-1152, DOI:


      The essential difference in the formation of conjugate shear zones in brittle and ductile deformation is that the intersection angle between brittle conjugate faults in the contractional quadrants is acute (usually ~60°) whereas the angle between conjugate ductile shear zones is obtuse (usually 110°). The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, an experimentally validated empirical relationship, is commonly applied for interpreting the stress directions based on the orientation of the brittle shear fractures. However, the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion fails to explain the formation of the low-angle normal fault, high-angle reverse fault, and the conjugate strike-slip fault with an obtuse angle in the σ1 direction. Although it is ten years since the Maximum-Effective-Moment (MEM) criterion was first proposed, and increasingly solid evidence in support of it has been obtained from both observed examples in nature and laboratory experiments, it is not yet a commonly accepted model to use to interpret these anti-Mohr-Coulomb features that are widely observed in the natural world. The deformational behavior of rock depends on its intrinsic mechanical properties and external factors such as applied stresses, strain rates, and temperature conditions related to crustal depths. The occurrence of conjugate shear features with obtuse angles of ~110° in the contractional direction on different scales and at different crustal levels are consistent with the prediction of the MEM criterion, therefore ~110° is a reliable indicator for deformation localization that occurred at medium-low strain rates at any crustal levels. Since the strain–rate is variable through time in nature, brittle, ductile, and plastic features may appear within the same rock.

    • CHI Guoxiang1, *, CHU Haixia1, Ryan SCOTT1, CHOU I-Ming2

      2014,88(4):1169-1182, DOI:


      Raman peaks of various hydrates in the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 system have been previously identified, but a quantitative relationship between the Raman peaks and XNaCl (i.e., NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2)) has not been established, mainly due to the difficulty to freeze the solutions. This problem was solved by adding alumina powder to the solutions to facilitate nucleation of crystals. Cryogenic (-185oC) Raman spectroscopic studies of alumina-spiced solutions indicate that XNaCl is linearly correlated with the total peak area fraction of hydrohalite. Capsules of solutions made from silica capillary were prepared to simulate fluid inclusions. Most of these artificial fluid inclusions could not be totally frozen even at temperatures as low as -185oC, and the total peak area fraction of hydrohalite is not correlated linearly with XNaCl. However, the degree of deviation (DXNaCl) from the linear correlation established earlier is related to the amount of residual solution, which is reflected by the ratio (r) of the baseline “bump” area, resulting from the interstitial unfrozen brine near 3435 cm-1, and the total hydrate peak area between 3350 and 3600 cm-1. A linear correlation between DXNaCl and r is established to estimate XNaCl from cryogenic Raman spectroscopic analysis for fluid inclusions.

    • DU Jianjun, LI Dunpeng, WANG Yufang, MA Yinsheng

      2017,91(1):76-92, DOI:


      The Weihe Graben is not only an important Cenozoic fault basin in China but also a significant active seismic zone. The Huashan piedmont fault is an important active fault on the southeast side of the Weihe Graben and has been highly active since the Cenozoic. The well–known Great Huaxian County Earthquake of 1556 occurred on the Huashan piedmont fault. This earthquake, which claimed the lives of approximately 830000 people, is one of the few large earthquakes known to have occurred on a high–angle normal fault. The Huashan piedmont fault is a typical active normal fault that can be used to study tectonic activity and the associated hazards. In this study, the types and characteristics of late Quaternary deformation along this fault are discussed from geological investigations, historical research and comprehensive analysis. On the basis of its characteristics and activity, the fault can be divided into three sections, namely eastern, central and western. The eastern and western sections display normal slip. Intense deformation has occurred along the two sections during the Quaternary; however, no deformation has occurred during the Holocene. The central section has experienced significant high–angle normal fault activity during the Quaternary, including the Holocene. Holocene alluvial fans and loess cut by the fault have been identified at the mouths of many stream valleys of the Huashan Mountains along the central section of the Huashan piedmont fault zone. Of the three sections of the Huashan piedmont fault, the central section is the most active and was very active during the late Quaternary. The rate of normal dip–slip was 1.67–2.71±0.11 mm/a in the Holocene and 0.61±0.15 mm/a during the Mid–Late Pleistocene. As is typical of normal faults, the late Quaternary activity of the Huashan piedmont fault has produced a set of disasters, which include frequent earthquakes, collapses, landslides, mudslides and ground fissures. Ground fissures mainly occur on the hanging–wall of the Huashan piedmont fault, with landslides, collapses and mudslides occurring on the footwall.

    • LI Jianjun, Martin G. LOCKLEY, ZHANG Yuguang, HU Songmei, MATSUKAWA Masaki, BAI Zhiqiang

      2012,86(1):1-10, DOI:


      A large track site with multiple, well-preserved trackways of an Early Jurassic quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur is the first report of Moyenisauripus-like trackways from Asia, herein named Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum. The tracks occur in a clastic fluvial sequence in the Fuxian Formation in Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province, which is in the same general region as the discovery site of Sinoichnites,the first dinosaur track reported from China. Based on size and morphology, it is likely that Sinoichnites, which is now lost, also represents an ornithischian. The Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum trackways show two modes of preservation: the first representing deeper tracks, with sediment rims, results in Deltapodus-like tracks, with indistinct pes digit traces and sub-circular manus traces, the second produces Moyenosauripus-like tracks, with clear tridactyl and pentadactyl digit traces in the pes and manus respectively. Thus the Shenmu trackways play a key role in resolving globally significant ichnotaxonomic problems surrounding the nomenclature of Sinoichnites, Moyenosauripus, Deltapodus and other named (Ravatichnus) and unnamed trackways from Asia, Africa and Europe. In addition they shed important light on the paleogeographical and paleoecological distribution of quadrupedal ornithischians in the Early Mesozoic. The track site has been the focus of a major excavation to transfer the trackways from their original remote location to the new Shenmu Museum, in Shenmu City. Other tracksites in the area which reveal Anomoepus, Grallator and the Deltapodus morphotype, together with Shenmuichnus and plant fossil evidence, suggest an Early Jurassic age for the tracksite.


      2015,89(3):715-725, DOI:


      Re-equilibration of fluid inclusions in crystals takes place by loss or gain of solvents and solutes from fluid inclusions and by changes in their volumes. Volume change of fluid inclusions are primarily dictated by elastic properties and available slip planes of host crystals. In the present study, the phase-behavior of fluids entrapped in co-precipitated calcite and barite is studied. While calcite contains only biphase fluid inclusions, barite has predominantly monophase fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and leachate analysis are used to establish the nature of entrapped fluids and entrapment temperature is substantiated through independent sulfur isotope geothermometry using coexisting barite and pyrite. Phase transitions in the monophase fluid inclusions in barite are explained in terms of over-pressuring of fluids in these fluid inclusions relative to fluids entrapped in calcite owing to the low bulk modulus of barite.

    • 2021,95(3):1056-1056, DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14310


    • ZHANG Gang, WANG Xuben, FANG Hui, GUO Ziming, ZHANG Zhaobin, LUO Wei, CAI Xuelin, LI Jun, LI Zhong, WU Xing

      2015,89(2):531-541, DOI:


      The Panxi region is located in the frontal zone of positive squeezing subduction and side squeezing shearing between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) and broadband magnetotelluric (MT) techniques are both used to study the deep electrical conductivity structure in this region; magnetic and gravity surveys are also performed along the profile. According to the 2-D resistivity model along the Yanyuan-Yongshan profile, a high-conductivity layer (HCL) exists widely in the crust, and a high-resistivity block (HRB) exists widely in the upper mantle in general, as seen by the fact that a large HCL exists from the western Jinpingshan tectonic zone to the eastern Mabian tectonic zone in the crust, while the HRB found in the Panxi tectonic zone is of abnormally high resistivity in that background compared to both sides of Panxi tectonic zone. In addition, the gravity and magnetic field anomalies are of high value. Combined with geological data, the results indicate that there probably exists basic or ultrabasic rock with a large thickness in the lithosphere in the Panxi axial region, which indicates that fracture activity once occurred in the lithosphere. As a result, we can infer that the high-resistivity zone in the Panxi lithosphere is the eruption channel for Permian Emeishan basalt and the accumulation channel for basic and ultrabasic rock. The seismic sources along the profile are counted according to seismic record data. The results indicate that the most violent earthquake sources are located at the binding site of the HRB and the HCL, where the tectonic activity zone is generally acknowledged to be; however, the earthquakes occurring in the HCL are not so violent, which reflects the fact that the HCL is a plastic layer, and the fracture threshold of a plastic layer is low generally, making high stress difficult to accumulate but easy to release in the layer. As a result, a higher number of smaller earthquakes occurred in the HCL at Daliangshan tectonic zone, and violent earthquakes occurred at the binding site of high- and low-resistivity blocks at the Panxi tectonic zone.

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