连通的黄河出现在早更新世:来自华北平原郑州钻孔的约束
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1.河南省地质科学研究所;2.天津大学地球系统科学学院;3.哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院

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(编号41972212; 42030305),河南省地质研究院地质科技攻关“揭榜挂帅”项目“黄河古冲积扇(孟津-兰考段)地层格架特征及建模研究”(2023-909-XM018-KT01)与“郑州地区全新世环境演变和华夏文明探源关键问题研究”(2023-909-XM018-KT02)、河南省自然资源科研项目“环嵩山地区全新世环境演化与华夏文明演进耦合关系研究”(2020-6)、“郑州市旅游地质与地质文化资源调查”(郑财招标采购-2020-475)共同资助成果。


The connected Yellow River first emerged during the Early Pleistocene, as evidenced by the findings from the Zhengzhou borehole in the North China Plain
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1.Henan Institute of Geological Sciences;2.School of Earth System Science,Tianjin University;3.College of Geographical Sciences,Harbin Normal University

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    摘要:

    大河的形成与构造活动和气候变化紧密相关,研究大河的形成历史有助于了解地球过去的演化过程。黄河是我国北方最大的河流,但其形成时代还存在较大争议。基于这一现状,我们选取黄河流出三门峡东流入海必经的开封坳陷开展沉积钻孔古地磁、磁化率、粒度和碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄分析,结果表明钻孔ZK02底部已经打穿第四系地层,而钻孔ZK04底部的沉积时代为早更新世晚期。钻孔ZK02的沉积环境以河流相为主,而钻孔ZK04在1.0-0.15 Ma时为河流相、湖相沉积,自0.15 Ma开始到顶部转变为黄土沉积。碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄物源示踪结果表明钻孔ZK04在1.0-0.15 Ma时的物源主要来自秦岭东部,自0.15 Ma 受邙山黄土的影响较大。钻孔ZK02的物源主要和黄河演化过程有关。三门峡东部的物质至少自2.2 Ma已经出现在现今郑州和黄河三角洲附近。但是黄河上游、中游和下游的整体连通发生在1.9-1.6 Ma,这主要和区域内的湿润气候有关。黄河流域在0.7-0.5 Ma经历了一期沉积粒度变粗的事件,这主要受中更新世气候转型的驱动。类似现今华北地区的黄河和渤海分布格局在中更新世形成。钻孔ZK02在0.15 Ma依然存在黄河的物质信号,说明黄河自2.2 Ma流经该区域后,主要的河道形态并没有发生明显的摆动。

    Abstract:

    The formation of rivers is closely related to tectonic activities and climate changes. Therefore, studying the historical formation of rivers is crucial for comprehending the evolutionary processes of the Earth. The formation age of the Yellow River, the largest river in northern China, remains a subject of significant controversy. To address this issue, our study focused on the Kaifeng Depression, a crucial passage through which the Yellow River flows eastward into the sea. Through sedimentary drilling, paleomagnetic, magnetic susceptibility, grain size, and detrital zircon U-Pb age analysis, we obtained several noteworthy results. The drilling core at ZK02 penetrated the Quaternary strata, while the bottom of ZK04 was dated to approximately during the late period of the Early Pleistonece. The sedimentary environment at ZK02 was primarily fluvial, whereas ZK04 experienced a transition from fluvial and lacustrine deposition between 1.0 and 0.15 Ma to loess deposition from 0.15 Ma to the present. The analysis of detrital zircon U-Pb ages revealed that the main source of sediment in ZK04 between 1.0 and 0.15 Ma was the eastern Qinling Mountains. However, since 0.15 Ma, the sediment composition has been significantly influenced by loess from the Mangshan Mountains. In contrast, the sediment provenance of ZK02 is primarily connected to the evolution of the Yellow River. Material from the eastern Sanmen Gorge region has been present near Zhengzhou and the Yellow River Delta for at least 2.2 Ma. The connection between the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yellow River occurred between 1.9 and 1.6 Ma, mainly due to the humid climate conditions in the region. During the Middle Pleistocene, the Yellow River basin experienced a period of coarser sedimentation between 0.7 and 0.5 Ma, primarily driven by climate transitions. This period contributed to the formation of a distribution pattern similar to the current layout of the Yellow River and the Bohai Sea in North China. The presence of material from the Yellow River in ZK02 at 0.15 Ma indicates that the main channel morphology of the Yellow River has not experienced significant oscillations after flowing through this region since 2.2 Ma.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-12-02
  • 最后修改日期:2024-03-17
  • 录用日期:2024-03-18
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