铝土矿成矿铁铝分异过程研究:以黔中石炭系九架炉组铝铁岩系为例
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贵州大学资源与环境工程学院

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国家自然科学基金(U1812402)、贵州省科技厅(黔科合平台人才[2018]5613)项目


Study on the process of iron-aluminum differentiation in bauxite formation: a case study of the iron-aluminum rock series in the Jiujialu Formation of the Carboniferous System in Central Guizhou
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Guizhou University

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    摘要:

    通过对黔中石炭系九架炉组铁质岩、铝土矿沉积层序、沉积结构构造、地球化学分析研究,认为铁铝分异主要在沉积期就发生,铁质岩中条带状、碎屑状和鲕状结构,说明铁质岩是沉积形成,而不是沉积后铁质迁移形成。地球化学特征显示,铁质岩和铝土矿具有明显不同的元素组成,应该是沉积期物源差异和沉积环境引起。区域上高铁铝土矿靠近物源,低铁铝土矿远离物源,也说明铁铝分异主要在沉积期。石炭系九架炉组铁铝分异与全球古气温、降雨转变密切相关,早石炭世维宪期是干燥炎热气候向寒冷气候转变期,降雨突然增强,风化壳中铁质被淋漓,以胶体形式搬运至湖泊和泻湖沉淀形成铁质岩,随后强烈的降雨引起洪泛事件,富铝土风化壳以碎屑流形式搬运到湖泊或泻湖沉积,碎屑状铝土矿就是洪泛事件产物。

    Abstract:

    Based on the study of the iron-aluminum rock series of the Jiujialu Formation in the Carboniferous System of Central Guizhou, as well as the sedimentary sequence, sedimentary structures, and geochemical analysis, it is concluded that iron-aluminum differentiation primarily occurred during the depositional period. The banded, clastic, and oolitic structures observed in the ferruginous rock indicate its depositional origin rather than post-depositional iron migration. Geochemical characteristics show distinct elemental compositions between the ferruginous rock and bauxite, suggesting differences in sediment sources and depositional environments during the depositional period. The proximity of high-iron bauxite deposits to source areas and the distance of low-iron bauxite deposits from source areas further support the conclusion that iron-aluminum differentiation primarily occurred during deposition. The iron-aluminum differentiation in the Jiujialu Formation is closely related to global paleoclimatic changes, particularly the transition from a hot and arid climate to a cold climate during the early Viséan period. The abrupt intensification of rainfall led to the leaching of iron-rich material from the weathered crust, which was transported in colloidal form and deposited in lakes and swamps, forming ferruginous rock. Subsequent heavy rainfall events resulted in flood events, during which aluminum-rich weathered crust was transported as debris flows into lakes or swamps, leading to the deposition of clastic bauxite as a product of these flood events.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-10-09
  • 最后修改日期:2023-12-01
  • 录用日期:2023-12-10
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