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江湖地质环境演变中的武汉市堤防历史与城市发展
投稿时间:2021-01-13  修订日期:2021-06-05  点此下载全文
引用本文:李国庆,张玉芬,李长安.2021.江湖地质环境演变中的武汉市堤防历史与城市发展[J].地质论评,67(5):1497-1506,[DOI]:.
LI Guoqing,ZHANG Yufen,LI Chang’an.2021.The history of embankment and urban development in Wuhan City during the evolution of the geological environment of rivers and lakes[J].Geological Review,67(5):1497-1506.
DOI:10.16509/j.georeview.2021.06.055
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作者单位E-mail
李国庆 中国地质大学(武汉)武汉地球物理与空间信息学院武汉430074 2212242226@qq.com 
张玉芬 中国地质大学(武汉)武汉地球物理与空间信息学院武汉430074  
李长安 中国地质大学(武汉)地理与信息工程学院武汉430074 1002858465@qq.com;chanli@cug.edu.cn 
基金项目:本文为国家自然科学基金资助项目(编号:41871019;41672355)和省市级项目:“武汉市多要素城市地质调查示范项目”(编号:WHDYS-2018-007)的成果
中文摘要:武汉位于长江与汉江交汇处,江、湖地质环境是造就武汉城市的基础,同时江河水患又是城市发展的主要制约因素。筑堤防洪是武汉城市建设的重中之重,武汉的城市发展史从某种程度上说就是堤防的修建史,是武汉城市发展的人地关系史。本文以武汉堤防修筑历史进程为主线,探讨了堤防建设的地质环境及对城市空间拓展和城市建设的意义。结果表明:修筑于北宋政和年间(公元1111 ~ 1118年)武昌的花蕊堤是武汉市最早的堤防,距今已有约900年的历史;明代以前为零星堤防建设阶段,主要为保护城廓安全,哪里遇险在哪里修堤,具有局部性、应对性特点。明代堤防兴建已带有很强的目的性和一定的系统性,特别是袁公堤的修建开启了武汉围垸发展的历史。清代是武汉堤防大发展时期,开始了较系统的堤防工程,奠定了武汉市堤防系统的基础,大量围垸的修建使武汉城市由沿河、沿江(天然堤)发展开始走向了内陆(围湖)发展的新阶段。民国时期,武汉市的堤防建设在清代的基础做了进一步的局部完善。武汉市的防洪堤防体系真正形成于新中国成立后的20世纪50年代,之后又不断地加固和加高,使之真正成为武汉市的安全保障工程;汉口的形成与发展完全依赖于堤防,城区的扩大大约经历了四个阶段,均是以四次堤防建设—袁公堤、汉口堡、京汉铁路堤、张公堤为前提的。堤防不仅是城市空间扩展的前提,又是城市建设的基础,民国以前武汉城区的主要街道大多数都依堤而建,平时以堤为街,汛期以街为堤,这是武汉城市建设和发展的显著特点。分别以袁公堤和张公堤为界,武汉堤防建设中的人地关系大致经历了三个阶段:“人类部分干预自然”维护生存阶段、“人为改造自然”谋求发展阶段和“人为控制自然”快速发展阶段。本研究可为地处洪泛区的城市地质调查提供借鉴。
中文关键词:武汉  地质环境  堤防建设  城市发展  城市地质
 
The history of embankment and urban development in Wuhan City during the evolution of the geological environment of rivers and lakes
NameInstitution
LI GuoqingInstitute of Geophysics and Geomatic,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074
ZHANG YufenInstitute of Geophysics and Geomatic,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074
LI Chang’anSchool of Geography and Information Engineering,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074
Abstract:Wuhan is located at the intersection of the Yangtze River and the Han River.The geological environment of the river and lake is the foundation of Wuhan city. Meanwhile,river flood is a major restricting factor for urban development.Flood control embankment is the most important task in Wuhan city construction.To some extent,the history of Wuhan's urban development is the history of embankment construction and the history of man-land relationship in Wuhan urban development.Based on the historical process of embankment construction in Wuhan,this paper discusses the geological environment of embankment construction and its significance to urban space expansion and urban construction.The research analysis shows three main results.First,Huarui Embankment in Wuchang is the earliest embankment in Wuhan city.It was built during the Reign of Zhenghe of the Northern Song Dynasty (1111 ~ 1118 aAD),with a history of about 900 years.Second,Wuhan was in the stage of sporadic embankment construction before Ming Dynasty,and the main purpose of embankments which had local and responsive characteristics was to protect the safety of the city walls.People build embankments only in places that were at risk at that time.The construction of embankments in the Ming Dynasty had a strong purpose and certain systematicity,especially the construction of Yuangong Embankment was the beginning of history of the development of Wuhan’s surrounding embankment.The Qing Dynasty was the great development period of Wuhan’s embankment. It was the beginning of the engineering of a relatively systematic embankment, which laid the foundation of Wuhan embankment system.The construction of a mass of surrounding embankments made Wuhan move from the development along the river and the natural levee to the new development stage of inland (turn lakes into lands).During the Republic of China,the construction of embankments in Wuhan was only partially perfected on the basis of the Qing Dynasty’s embankments.Wuhan's flood protection system was formed in the 1950s after the founding of the People's Republic of China.It has been continuously strengthened and raised since then,making it a real safety guarantee project in Wuhan.Third,the formation and development of Hankou depend entirely on the embankment.Urban expansion has gone through four stages,namely Yuangong Embankment,Hankou Fort,Jinghan Railway Dike and Zhanggong Embankment, all based on the embankment construction.Embankments are not only the premise of urban space expansion,but also the foundation of urban construction.Before the Republic of China,most of the main streets in Wuhan city were built along the embankments.It was gradually formed that making an embankment a street at ordinary times while making a street an embankment in the flood season,which is the remarkable characteristic of Wuhan's urban construction and development.With the boundaries of Yuangong Embankment and Zhanggong Embankment,the Human-land relationship of the embankment construction in Wuhan has roughly gone through three stages: the stage of " human intervents partly in nature " to maintain the survival,the stage of " human changes and shapes nature " to seek development and the stage of " human controls nature " to try for rapid development.This study can be used as a reference for urban geological survey in flood area.
keywords:Wuhan City  geological environment  embankment construction  urban development  city geology
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