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潮控河口湾砂坝发育特征及形成因素分析 ——以钱塘江为例
投稿时间:2019-03-27  修订日期:2019-11-27  点此下载全文
引用本文:周涵,黄继新,冯文杰,刘尚奇,尹艳树.2020.潮控河口湾砂坝发育特征及形成因素分析 ——以钱塘江为例[J].地质论评,66(1):101-111,[DOI]:.
ZHOU Han,HUANG Jixin,FENG Wenjie,LIU Shangqi,YIN Yanshu.2020.Analysis on formation factors and development characteristics of sand bar in tide dominated estuaries——A case study based on Qiantang River[J].Geological Review,66(1):101-111.
DOI:10.16509/j.georeview.2020.01.007
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作者单位E-mail
周涵 长江大学地球科学学院武汉430100 Email:201772259@yangtzeu.edu.cn 
黄继新 中国石油石油勘探开发研究院北京100083  
冯文杰 长江大学地球科学学院武汉430100  
刘尚奇 中国石油石油勘探开发研究院北京100083  
尹艳树 长江大学地球科学学院武汉430100 Email:yys6587@126.com 
基金项目:注:本文为国家自然科学基金资助项目(编号:41572081)和国家科技重大专项(编号:2016ZX05031002 001)以及湖北省创新群体项目(编号:2016CFA024)的成果
中文摘要:受河流和潮汐双重因素控制,潮控河口湾储层发育特征及形成因素复杂,导致现代潮汐河口治理和古代潮控河口湾有利含油储层预测困难。本文采用沉积数值模拟技术,以钱塘江为对象,开展河口区砂坝发育特征及成因模拟,揭示河口区砂坝成因与形态、空间、厚度上的发育特征。通过设定不同底床坡度和潮汐能量,探讨河口区砂坝成因的主控因素。研究结果表明:① 河口区砂坝形成主要受控于潮汐作用,涨—退潮作用造成砂坝形成、迁移和演变;河口向海方向主要以长条状砂坝为主,河口向陆一侧发育U型坝和复合砂坝;河流段砂坝主要受控于河流水动力影响,潮汐作用不大。② 潮汐能量增强,潮汐通道变宽变浅,河口向陆一侧发育的U型砂坝和复合坝多被侵蚀切割呈小型砂坝,向海一侧的小型砂坝逐渐演化为长条状砂坝;潮汐能量变弱时,涨落潮水道短,潮汐砂坝难以形成。潮汐能量中等时,砂坝较为发育,且有连片分布趋势。③ 随着底床坡度的逐渐增大,潮汐砂坝的集中分布区逐渐向海迁移,砂坝的分异性增加,形态由不规则的点坝,演变为分流砂坝,河流作用影响增强;底床坡度变小,则砂坝向海方向迁移的趋势减弱,此时潮汐作用增强,河口区砂坝由不规则点坝逐渐演变为长条形砂坝,规模逐渐变小。④ 砂坝的形成和分布受潮汐能量和底形共同作用,在潮汐能量M2:25、S2:21以及底形坡度0003°下,长条形潮汐砂坝发育且具有典型的潮控河口湾特征。
中文关键词:潮控河口湾  沉积数值模拟  潮汐砂坝  主控因素  钱塘江口
 
Analysis on formation factors and development characteristics of sand bar in tide dominated estuaries——A case study based on Qiantang River
NameInstitution
ZHOU HanSchool of Geosciences, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100
HUANG JixinResearch Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC, Beijing, 100083
FENG WenjieSchool of Geosciences, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100
LIU ShangqiResearch Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC, Beijing, 100083
YIN YanshuSchool of Geosciences, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100
Abstract:Objectives: Controlled by rivers and tides, the formation factors and development characteristics of tide dominated estuary reservoirs are complicated, resulting in difficult management of modern tide dominated estuaries and difficult prediction of ancient favorable oil bearing reservoirs. Methods: In this study, formation factors and distribution of sand bars in the modern strong tide dominated estuary —— Qiantang river were simulated and predicted by depositional numerical simulation, thus disclosing formation factors of sand bars in the estuaries and spatial distribution. Main controlling factors of sand bar formation factors and development characteristics in estuaries were studied by setting different bed dips and tidal energies using single factor analysis method.Results: Result demonstrated that: (1) The formation of sand bar in estuaries is controlled by tide. Sand bars in estuaries present zonal development characteristics. Near the estuary develop composite sand bar and U shaped sand bar, river bars are mainly controlled by river hydrodynamic effects, and tidal effect is weak. Elongate bar is mainly the products of tide and distribute in the mid and outer estuary. The distribution of sandbar is similar to the Qiantang river estuary. (2) The tidal energy is enhanced, the tidal channel is widened and shallowed, and the U shaped sand bar and composite bar developed on the estuary to the land side are eroded and cut into small sand bars, and the small sand bar on the sea side gradually evolves into an elongate sand bar; When the tidal energy becomes weak, the tidal sand bar is difficult to form. When the tidal energy is medium, the sand bar is relatively developed and has a continuous distribution trend. (3) With the gradual increase of the slope of the bed, the concentrated distribution area of the tidal sand bar gradually migrates to the sea, the differentiation of the sand bar increases, and the shape changes from an irregular point bar to a diverted sand bar, and the influence of the river is enhanced. When the slope of the bottom bed becomes smaller, the tendency of the sand bar to migrate toward the sea is weakened. At this time, the tidal action is enhanced, and the sand bar in the estuary area gradually evolves from an irregular point bar to an elongate sand bar, and the scale gradually becomes smaller. (4) The formation and distribution of sand bars are affected by the tidal energy and the bottom shape. Under the tidal energy M2: 2.5, S2: 2.1 and the bottom slope of 0.003°, the tidal sand bar develops and has a typical distribution of tide dominated estuary. Conclusions:The depositional numerical simulation method has been successfully applied to Qiantang River to reveal the sand bar formation mechanism and spatial distribution, the factors of the slope of river bed and tide energy are analyzed and under medium tide energy and slope will give a beneficial sand bar deposit which will later be a potential reservoir.
keywords:tide dominated estuaries  depositional numerical simulation  tidal sandbar  dominant factors  Qiantang River estuary
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