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是蹄窝,不是壶穴—北京西山古道蹄窝成因考
投稿时间:2015-12-07  修订日期:2016-03-19  点此下载全文
引用本文:苏德辰.2016.是蹄窝,不是壶穴—北京西山古道蹄窝成因考[J].地质论评,62(3):693-708,[DOI]:.
SU Dechen.2016.Stepping Holes, Instead of Potholes Discusion on Origin of the Stepping Holes on the Ancient Roads in Western Hills, Beijing[J].Geological Review,62(3):693-708.
DOI:
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作者单位E-mail
苏德辰 中国地质科学院地质研究所, 北京 100037 sudechen@163.com 
中文摘要:北京境内的西部山区统称为北京西山,亦简称京西,是北京西部的天然屏障, 也是京城连接河北、山西和内蒙古等地的重要通道。京西矿产资源丰富,尤其盛产优质煤炭,是京城重要的能源基地。京西风景秀美,宗教文化渊源深厚,是北京周边的宗教圣地。连接京西重要军事设施、宗教场所和数百个自然村落的古代道路统称京西古道,主要繁荣于明清年间。随着现代铁路和公路开通,这些古道渐渐冷清。但近年来,成了人们郊游的良好场所。在人工开凿修建的古道上(大型铺砌路石和垭口基岩路面)散布着许多直径十几厘米的圆形凹坑,本是运送煤炭等货物的驮畜数百年间长期不断踩踏的产物,因此通常被称为“蹄窝”。近年来,这些蹄窝却被某些地质学家当作天然形成的“壶穴”在网上作科普宣传, 且被许多游人信以为真。本文从京西古道的发展史、元明清三朝京西煤矿的开采历史文献等方面对京西古道进行了考证,特别对京西古道上的蹄窝首次进行了系统的测量与描述,从其空间分布、形成的时间要素、微观特征、永定河及大石河河谷中的天然壶穴对比、人文历史证据以及与中国国内其他古道的视频资料等诸多方面对蹄窝的成因进行了讨论,证实京西古道上的蹄窝不是水流冲刷形成的壶穴,而是运送煤炭等货物的驮畜数百年间不断踩踏所形成的蹄坑。在蹄窝的形成过程中,不排除有岩石的差异性风化和溶蚀作用的参与,但这种作用远小于牲蹄踩踏的机械作用。
中文关键词:蹄窝  壶穴  永定河  驮畜  踩踏
 
Stepping Holes, Instead of Potholes Discusion on Origin of the Stepping Holes on the Ancient Roads in Western Hills, Beijing
NameInstitution
SU DechenInstitute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, 100037
Abstract:As the natural barriers of Beijing and the important junctions connecting Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, the Western Hills of Beijing have rich natural resources such as high quality coal and building materials. The Western Hills have been the energy base and important religious holy land of Beijing since 1421 AD, when Beijing was made the capital of the Ming Dynasty. A well developed ancient road system was built for the purpose of connecting the important military facilities, temples, coal mines and hundreds of villages in Ming and Qing Dynasties. A lot of hoof shaped holes with diameters of about 20 cm are scattered along the surface of the manmade ancient roads, which are dozens meters or hundreds of meters higher than the river bed. Typically the holes show clear patterns of animal trails, the distance between two holes averages 40~60 cm. Based on this analysis, the author validated that these holes could not be formed by the processes of grinding action of streams currents to make pot holes nor by differential erosion. They are the stepping holes which were formed by the continuous treading of the hoof shoes of pack animals.
keywords:Ancient roads of the Western Hills of Beijing, Stepping holes, pothole, the Yongding River, pack animal
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