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断层侧向封闭性及对断圈油水关系的控制
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引用本文:付晓飞,李文龙,吕延防,贺向阳,刘哲.2011.断层侧向封闭性及对断圈油水关系的控制[J].地质论评,57(3):387-397,[DOI]:.
.2011.Quantitative Estimation of Lateral Fault Seal and Application in Hydrocarbon Exploration[J].Geological Review,57(3):387-397.
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作者单位
付晓飞 东北石油大学地球科学学院黑龙江大庆163318 
李文龙 东北石油大学地球科学学院黑龙江大庆163318 
吕延防 东北石油大学地球科学学院黑龙江大庆163318 
贺向阳 北京吉泰公司北京100083 
刘哲 东北石油大学地球科学学院黑龙江大庆163318 
基金项目:本文为中石油风险创新基金项目“三肇凹陷多边断层成因机制及对油成藏控制作用研究”的成果
中文摘要:张性正断层断裂带内部结构具有二分性:即断层核和破碎带,断层核由多个滑动面和不同类型的断层岩组成,其渗透性取决于带内泥质含量所决定的断层岩的类型,破碎带表现为高密度裂缝切割围岩,总体表现为高渗透的特征,因此,断裂带渗透能力取决于断层核与破碎带相对发育程度,侧向封闭能力主要取决于断裂带中泥质含量。存在5种侧向封闭类型:即对接封闭、碎裂岩封闭(SGR<15%)、层状硅酸盐—框架断层岩封闭(15%<SGR<50%)、泥岩涂抹封闭(SGR>50%)和胶结封闭。对接封闭是小规模断层和脆性地层中断层的主要封闭机理,对接封闭模式决定正断层控制的油气富集在下盘,烃柱高度与断圈范围内控藏断裂最小断距相当。走滑断层“丝带效应”造成断层两盘油水呈“正弦曲线”模式分布。基于已知封闭断层断裂带SGR与两盘压力差之间的关系,建立了断层岩侧向封闭烃柱高度与SGR之间的定量关系,对于未标定区可以通过实际油藏油水界面和烃柱高度分布,反推定量关系中的d值,进而确定断层侧向封闭烃柱高度与SGR之间的定量关系,从而对未知断裂侧向封闭能力进行定量评价。依据断层封闭的烃柱高度和圈闭幅度的关系,将断圈分为三种类型:一是完全有效的圈闭,圈闭中充满油,油从构造溢出点溢出;二是部分有效的圈闭,圈闭中油气柱高度小于圈闭幅度,油从断层侧向溢出;三是完全无效圈闭,圈闭中充满水。
中文关键词:侧向封闭  定量评价  对接  断层岩  油水关系
 
Quantitative Estimation of Lateral Fault Seal and Application in Hydrocarbon Exploration
NameInstitution
Abstract:The internal structure of fault zone in extensional normal fault consists of fault core and damage zone. There may be several slip surfaces and kinds of fault rock in fault core which the permeability of them depends on both the shale content in the fault zone and the type of fault rock. Damage zone which is characterized by high density of fractures shearing the surrounding rock has relative higher permeability than fault core. Hence, the lateral permeability of fault zone is decided by the development of both fault core and damage zone. While, shale content in the fault zone dominant its lateral seal capacity .There are five seal types including juxtaposition seal, cataclastic rock seal(SGR<15%), framework—phyllosilicate fault rocks seal(15%<SGR<50%), clay smears seal (SGR>50%)and cemented seal. Juxtaposition seal is the dominant seal mechanism in small scale fault and fault which developed in brittle layer. This seal pattern decide that the hydrocarbon which is dominated by normal fault enrich in footwall. The height of hydrocarbon column is equivalence with the minimal displacement of the controlling fault in fault trap area. Hydrocarbon in footwall and hanging wall distribute as “sine curve” is the result of the “silk ribbon effect” of strike slip fault .Based on the relationship between the SGR value of sealing fault in fault zone and the pressure difference between footwall and hanging wall, the quantitative relationship is established between SGR value and height of hydrocarbon column sealed by lateral fault seal. Use of actual distribution of OWC and the height of hydrocarbon column can be made to conclude d value for no calibrating area, and then the relationship between the height of hydrocarbon column and SGR value can be made sure. Therefore, lateral fault seal capacity can be estimated quantitatively according as above. Fault trap can be classified as entirety efficient trap, partly efficient trap and entirety inefficient trap according to the height of hydrocarbon column and its scope. Entirety efficient trap is full of hydrocarbon,the gas/oil runoff from the spilling point. The height of hydrocarbon column is smaller than trap scope in partly efficient trap and gas/oil runoff from fault laterally. There have only water in entirety inefficient trap.
keywords:lateral seal  quantitative estimation  juxtaposition  fault rock  relationship between oil and water distribution
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