• 2020年第94卷第3期文章目次
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      2020, 94(3):0-0.

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    • ORIGINAL ARTICLES

      2020, 94(3):0-1.

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    • Special Issue Devoted to the Civilization and Environment along the Ancient Silk Road Preface

      2020, 94(3):1-6.

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    • Every Cloud has a Silver Lining: Using Silver Concentration to Identify the Number of Sources of Lead used in Shang Dynasty Bronzes

      2020, 94(3):585-593. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14530

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      摘要:The use of lead, some of which is characterized by a highly radiogenic signature, sharply distinguishes Bronze Age China from the rest of Eurasia. Scholars have long hypothesized that silver can offer an independent proxy to characterize lead minerals. The summary of silver distribution associated with Shang and Western Zhou bronzes in this paper reveals an important difference between the south (Sanxingdui, Hanzhong, Jinsha, Panlongcheng, Xin’gan) and the Central Plains. Correlating silver with lead content as well as with the isotopic signature indicates that south China and the Central Plains had different lead sources during the late Shang period, and also that the highly radiogenic and common lead used at Anyang come from geochemical environments which cannot be distinguished by the level of silver.

    • Metallurgy at the Crossroads: New Analyses of Copper-based Objects at Tianshanbeilu, Eastern Xinjiang, China

      2020, 94(3):594-602. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14531

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      摘要:Tianshanbeilu is the largest Bronze Age site in eastern Xinjiang, China. Stretching across the entire second millennium BC, it performed a prominent role in connecting the Hexi corridor, Central China and the steppe. A further insight into the metallurgical tradition and the metal supply network is of vital importance to improve our understanding of its multi-connected nature. This paper offers a new set of chemical and isotopic data on the copper-based objects at Tianshanbeilu, including alloying elements, trace elements (impurities) and lead isotopes. Combining the concentrations of arsenic and antimony reveals that arsenic was introduced to copper partially due to the use of specific minerals tethrahedrite-tennantite. Lead isotopes demonstrate that multiple sources of copper were employed at Tianshanbeilu and a majority of them are characterized by common lead, which appears rather different from those of the Central Plains and the Hexi corridor, but highly consistent with local ores. Surprisingly, one object at Tianshanbeilu contains the well-known highly radiogenic lead. This object undoubtedly marks the westernmost boundary of the distribution of the highly radiogenic lead. We also anticipate that more lead isotopic analyses in NW China will further contribute to the study of the highly radiogenic lead in Central China.

    • The Integration of Farmers and Nomads: Archaeological Evidence for the Human Subsistence Strategy in Northwestern China during the Han Dynasty

      2020, 94(3):603-611. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14536

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      摘要:The integration of farmers and nomads in northwestern China during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE ~ 220 CE) provides a crucial opportunity to reconstruct the material exchanges, formation and development of the Silk Road in antiquity. The subsistence strategy is arguably an effective proxy for the integration of various groups of people (e.g. farmers and nomads). In this paper, we have reported new stable isotope data from the Huangwan tombs dated to the Han dynasty in middle Gansu, which was the key juncture between the Han and Xiongnu empire, in order to fill the gap and further understand the substance strategies employed by the local people. According to the results of plant remains and stable isotopic data, millet farming, the typical agricultural activities for the Han Chinese in the Central Plains, was also the primary lifestyle for the Huangwan people in the mid Gansu. More importantly, this shows fundamentally remarkable difference from the agricultural practices in the Bronze Age Gansu Corridor, which were based on a variety of crops, including wheat, barley and millet. This major shift in the subsistence production at Huangwan can be correlated to a wider historical background in which the Han empire showed increasing political and military presence in the Gansu Corridor, indicating that local indigenous nomads followed the lifestyle of Han Chinese (e.g., millet farming), and/or the Han immigrates maintained millet farming.

    • Climate Change, Geopolitics, and Human Settlements in the Hexi Corridor over the Last 5,000 Years

      2020, 94(3):612-623. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14529

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      摘要:Social responses to climate change over human history have been widely discussed in academia over the last two decades. However, the transformation of the human–environment nexus crossing prehistoric and historic periods and the processes associated with it are not yet clearly understood. In this study, based on published works on radiocarbon dating, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, and archaeological sites, together with a synthesis of historical documents and high-resolution paleoclimatic records, we trace the extent to which human settlement patterns in the Hexi Corridor in northwestern China evolved in conjunction with climate change over the last 5,000 years. A total of 129 Neolithic, 126 Bronze Age, and 1,378 historical sites in the Hexi Corridor (n=1,633) were surveyed. Our results show that, in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods (~2800–100 BC), climate change contributed to the transformation of subsistence strategies and the subsequent changes in human settlement patterns in the Hexi Corridor. The warm-humid climate in ~2800–2000 BC promoted millet agriculture and helped the Majiayao, Banshan, and Machang Cultures to flourish. The cold-dry climate in ~2000–100 BC resulted in the divergence and transformation of subsistence strategies in the Xichengyi–Qijia–Siba and Shajing–Shanma Cultures and in a shift in their settlement patterns. However, in the historical period (121 BC–AD 1911), human settlement patterns were primarily determined by geopolitics related to the alternating rule of regimes and frequent wars, especially in the Sui–Tang dynasties. We also find that trans-Eurasian cultural exchange since ~2000 BC improved social resilience to climate change in the Hexi Corridor, mediating the human–environment nexus there. Our findings may provide insights into how human societies reacted to climate change in arid and semi-arid environments over the long term.

    • Oasis Functional Stability Evaluation Based on Multiple Indicators, Northwest China

      2020, 94(3):624-636. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14535

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      摘要:We produced and analyzed oasis structure information, and evaluated oasis functional stability using the multiple indicators based on Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) in the arid region of China in 2015. The results showed that the oases area was 193,734 km2, accounting for 8.17% of the arid region of China. The spatial difference in the functional stability of oases was obvious. The Beijiang zone had the highest functional stability and was relatively stable state, and the Hexi Corridor-Alashan Plateau zone had the lowest functional stability and was relatively unstable. The functional stability is dominated by production and ecological functions, which have regional differences. Increasing oasis agricultural output, strengthening highway infrastructure construction and paying attention to education will become important ways to improve oasis functional stability. Water resources determine the ecological function, thus affecting the oasis functional stability. The results provide references for the formulation of related policies according to local conditions.

    • Quantitative Analysis of Natural and Human Factors of Oasis Change in the Tail of Shiyang River over the Past 60 Years

      2020, 94(3):637-645. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14537

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      摘要:The human and natural factors complicit in the driving forces of oasis change have always received considerable interest from the international research community. In this study, we used principal component analysis of natural and socio-economic statistical factors to quantitatively analyze the causal relationships and their contributions to the observed periodic expansion or shrinkage of the Minqin Oasis over almost 60 years. Our results show that human factors were the dominant factors governing expansion or shrinkage, with average contributions of 69.38% and 76.16%, respectively. Moreover, policy decisions have been the pivotal human factors. Under the influence of various policies, we have found that water resource utilization, land reclamation, population explosion, ecological protection and economic development have each played leading roles in different periods. This study provides a scientific basis for modelling the dynamics of an oasis for sustainable management.

    • Hydrological Variations and the Ancient Silk Road in the Northern Tarim Basin between Han and Sui Dynasties

      2020, 94(3):646-657. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14540

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      摘要:The fluctuation pattern of China’s civilization can be ascribed to climate change and historical geopolitical variations. The ancient Silk Road served as the most prosperous route connecting East Asia and Europe during Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) and Sui-Tang Dynasties (581–907 AD), but was deserted in Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties (220–580 AD), of which the Tarim Basin was a key area. However, our understanding about the decline of the route during this period remains limited. Here, we present an ~7-year resolution record based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age-depth model (ca. 120 BC–750AD) from Luntai (LT) profile, about 5 km from the modern Tarim River, which fed the ancient oases, to assess the potential causes on the documented decline of the ancient Silk Road between Late Han and Sui dynasties. In this study, five episodes of hydrological change were identified by combining grain size, magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and TOC/TN contents. Our reconstruction reveals that cold and wet climate dominated at 120BC–50 AD and 550–750AD, respectively, indicated by strong hydrodynamic conditions. Relatively warm and humid climate occurred at 120–550AD, between Eastern Han and Sui-Tang dynasties, indicating a better and more suitable local environment. A comparison between the studied region and other areas of China demonstrates that the paleoclimatic variations in eastern and western China exhibit rough discrepancies, and the hydrological conditions in arid region is inconsistent with the decline of ancient Silk Road in the northern Tarim Basin. We suggest that political and societal factors are the key issues that caused the interruption of Silk Road during Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties, such as the co-occurrence of societal crises, turmoil and division in eastern China, rather than the deteriorating climatic condition in the northern Tarim basin.

    • Late Holocene Moisture Changes in the Core Area of Arid Central Asia Reflected by Rock Magnetic Records of Glacier Lake Kalakuli Sediments in the Westernmost Tibetan Plateau and their Influences on the Evolution of Ancient Silk Road

      2020, 94(3):658-667. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14539

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      摘要:The evolution of Ancient Silk Road (ASR) was deeply influenced by late Holocene moisture changes in Arid Central Asia (ACA). Nevertheless, controversies in Holocene moisture change pattern of ACA and poorly–constrained age models of related studies have made the discussion about late Holocene moisture changes in ACA and their influences on the evolution of ASR difficult. Recently, a high–resolution age model during the late Holocene was established for Kalakuli Lake, a small glacier lake located in the core area of ACA. A thorough rock magnetic investigation was carried out on Kalakuli Lake sediments based on this age model. The magnetic mineral assemblage of Kalakuli Lake sediments is still dominated by primary magnetite despite minor diagenetic effects. Comparisons of rock magnetic records to parameters previously used as indicator of glacier fluctuations suggest that clastic input to Kalakuli Lake was high (low) and magnetic grain size is relatively larger (smaller), when glaciers on Muztagh Ata advanced (retreated). The ARM/SIRM ratio, a magnetic grain size proxy, is directly related to lake hydrodynamics, which are ultimately controlled by glacier fluctuations on Muztagh Ata as the result of regional moisture changes. Late Holocene moisture changes indicated by the ARM/SIRM ratio are consistent with cool/wet and warm/dry oscillations indicated by the unweighted average of biomarker hydrogen isotopic data of the C26 and C28 n–alkanoic acids in a previous study about Kalakuli Lake, most moisture change records of the core area of ACA and winter insolation of the Northern Hemisphere, but opposite to Asian monsoon evolution. Given Asian monsoon and the westerlies are mutually inhibited, we propose that late Holocene moisture changes in the core area of ACA were controlled by the intensity of Asian monsoon versus the westerlies under the governance of solar insolation. Generally increased moisture since the late Holocene indicated by the ARM/SIRM ratio favored cultural exchange and integration between the western and the eastern Eurasia, which paved the way for the formation of ASR. Coincidence between significant increase in moisture at ~200 BC suggested by the ARM/SIRM ratio and the formation of ASR indicates moisture as an important factor that facilitated the formation of ASR. The onsets of three prosperity periods of ASR in the history generally correspond to periods when moisture was relatively high, nevertheless, stagnant periods of ASR do not coincide with periods when moisture was relatively low in the core area of ACA. Disorganized correlations between stagnant periods of ASR and moisture changes in the core area of ACA suggest that moisture is not the decisive factor influencing the evolution of ASR.

    • Holocene Moisture Variation Recorded by Aeolian Sand-Palaeosol Sequences of the Gonghe Basin, Northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

      2020, 94(3):668-681. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14541

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      摘要:The northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China is located at the triple junction of the Asian winter and summer monsoons and the westerlies, where paleoclimatic evolution has an important scientific significance for recognizing the spatial-temporal pattern of Asian monsoons in the past and predicting environmental change in the future. Nevertheless, the framework of the Holocene moisture variation and related mechanisms remain controversial, owing to complex hydroclimatic conditions triggered by the landform of the large mountain-arid basin. Here, we employed geochemical proxies from typical aeolian sand-palaeosol sequences in the Gonghe Basin, northeastern QTP, together with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, to reconstruct the pattern of effective moisture variation and associated mechanisms in this region. Our results indicate that the regional effective moisture was at its lowest until 9–8 ka, and approached a maximum during 8–4/3 ka of the middle Holocene. Afterwards, the climate became relatively dry in general, but with a transient humid interval around 2–1 ka. Our geochemical evidence indicates that the dry early Holocene probably can be attributed to a strong winter monsoon forced by remnant ice sheet, combined with the high evaporation caused by solar insolation. Also, shifts of humid-dry are closely linked to the Asian summer monsoonal strength and therefore the balance of evaporation-precipitation in the middle and late Holocene. Thus, the pattern of the Holocene effective moisture variation is characterized as the ‘monsoon model’ in a closed intermontane arid and semi-arid basin near the western Asian monsoonal limit.

    • August–September Runoff Variation in the Kara Darya River Determined from Juniper (Juniperus turkestanica) Tree Rings in the Pamirs-Alai Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, Back to 1411 CE

      2020, 94(3):682-689. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14533

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      摘要:A 606 year runoff reconstruction of the Kara Darya River was developed, based on the tree-ring width chronology of Turkestan juniper (Juniperus turkestanica) from the Pamir-Alai Mountains of Kyrgyzstan. Preliminary comparison between the snow cover variation and these climate/runoff reconstructions found that Central Asian snow cover may have strong associations with large-scale ocean-atmosphere-land circulations. The runoff reconstruction demonstrated that instrumental runoff was not representative of runoff over the past 606 years. The drought of the 1960s-1990s resulted in low runoff levels during the past 50 years; however, this probably does not represent a worst-case scenario for the Kara Darya because the runoff reconstruction showed additional extremely low runoff prior to the 20th century. The reconstruction will provide a long-term perspective on runoff variation in the Kara Darya River basin, aid sustainable water resource management and be useful in guiding expectations of future variations and water resource planning.

    • A 602-year Reconstruction of July-June Streamflow in the Kuqa River, China, Reveals the Changing Hydrological Signals of the Tarim Basin

      2020, 94(3):690-697. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14532

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      摘要:A regional tree-ring width chronology of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) was used to determine the annual (previous July to current June) streamflow of the Kuqa River in Xinjiang, China, for the period of 1414–2015. A linear transformation of the tree-ring data accounted for 63.9% of the total variance when regressed against instrumental streamflow during 1957–2006. The model was validated by comparing the regression estimates against independent data. High streamflow periods with a streamflow above the 602-year mean occurred from 1430–1442, 1466–1492, 1557–1586, 1603–1615, 1687–1717, 1748–1767, 1795–1819, 1834–1856, 1888–1910 and 1989–2015. Low streamflow periods (streamflow below the mean) occurred from 1419–1429, 1443–1465, 1493–1556, 1587–1602, 1616–1686, 1720–1747, 1768–1794, 1820–1833, 1857–1887 and 1911–1988. The reconstruction compares well with the tree-ring-based streamflow series of the Tizinafu River from the Kunlun Mountains; both show well-known severe drought events. The streamflow reconstruction also shows highly synchronous upward trends since the 1980s, suggesting that streamflow is related to Central Asian warming and humidification. Thus, the influences of the extremes and the persistence of low streamflows on local society may be considerable. Climatic changes in the watershed may be responsible for the change in the hydrologic regime of the Tarim Basin observed during the late twentieth century.

    • Grain-size Age Model in Reconstructing Orbital- and Suborbital-scale Climate Changes on the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau Since the Late Glacial

      2020, 94(3):698-706. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14534

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      摘要:Reconstructions of past climatic changes on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP) can provide insights into the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) variability. However, the regional climate changes on both orbital and suborbital time scales since the late Glacial remain controversial. Here we present the results of high-resolution geochemical?and grain-size analyses of a sediment core from Genggahai Lake, a small, shallow lake in this area. Changes of the accumulation rate of the core sediments show a?similar?trend with variations of the coarse fraction. Accordingly, the chronological framework is constructed using a grain-size age model. In addition, the histories of chemical weathering and aeolian activity since the late Glacial are reconstructed based on the Al/Ti ratios and coarse fractions, respectively. The results suggest that an enhanced chemical weathering and a weakened aeolian activity occurred on the NETP under a warmer, wetter climate during the early to mid-Holocene (11.3–6.3 ka cal BP), compared with the late Glacial (17.1–11.3 ka cal BP) and the late Holocene (6.3 ka cal BP to present), which responded mainly to the strengthened ASM on orbital time scale. In addition, the synchronous occurrences of weakened chemical weathering, low lake level and intense aeolian activity on suborbital time scale reflect several episodes of weakened ASM. Furthermore, these episodes largely coincide with the centennial- to millennial-scale cold events in the North Atlantic, which demonstrates the close connection between the ASM and the cooling at high latitudes.

    • Paleohydrological Changes in the Western Tibetan Plateau over the Past 16,000 years Based on Sedimentary Records of n-Alkanes and Grain Size

      2020, 94(3):707-716. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14538

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      摘要:Both monsoons and westerlies have exerted influence on climate dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) since the last deglaciation, producing complex patterns of paleohydroclimatic conditions. Diverse proxy records are essential to forge a robust understanding of the climate system on the TP. Currently, there is a general lack of understanding of the response of inland lakes over the TP to climate change, especially glacier-fed lakes. Paleohydrological reconstructions of such lakes could deepen our understanding of the history of lake systems and their relationship to regional climate variability. Here we use records of n-alkanes and grain size from the sediments of Bangong Co in the western TP to reconstruct paleohydrological changes over the past 16,000 years. The Paq record (the ratio of non-emergent aquatic macrophytes versus emergent aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial plants) is generally consistent with the variations in summer temperature and precipitation isotopes. The changes in grain-size distributions show a similar trend to Paq but with less pronounced fluctuations in the early-middle Holocene. The new data combined with previous results from the site demonstrate that: 1) Bangong Co experienced relatively large water-level ?uctuations during the last deglaciation, with a steadily high lake-level during the early-middle Holocene and a decreasing lake-level in the late Holocene; 2) The lake level fluctuations were driven by both high summer temperatures via the melting water and monsoon precipitation. However, the dominant factor controlling lake level changed over time. The lake-level history at Bangong Co deduced from the n-alkanes and grain-size records reveals the past hydrological changes in the catchment area, and stimulates more discussion about the future of glacier-fed lakes under the conditions of unprecedented warming in the region.

    • Lacustrine Record of 1954 Flood Event on Begnas and Rupa Lake, Central Nepal

      2020, 94(3):717-724. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14543

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      摘要:In recent decades, there have been discussions and predictions regarding the impact of climate on floods, due to its socioeconomic and environmental consequences. For accurate prediction of future flood events and their impacts, it is crucial to have an improved understanding on past flood events. Lacustrine sediments have been used as a natural archive to study the past flood events. Here, we study the impact of 1954 flood event on the lacustrine environment of Bengas and Rupa Lake in central Nepal based on X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) element analysis, magnetic susceptibility (MS), total organic carbon (TOC) and the biomarker molecular compositions. Results showed that 1954 flood event had significant impacts on the two lakes in terms of detrital input, organic matter deposition and aquatic production. Before the flood event, both two studied lakes had relatively lower catchment erosion rate, lower organic matter deposition and aquatic production. During the flood event, catchment erosion and aquatic production increased in both lakes due to mass transport deposits and the increased nutrition loading attributed to flood event. Following the flood event, Begnas Lake showed the sharp increase in organic matter deposition, whereas in the Rupa Lake organic matter deposition showed minor changes. The difference in organic matter deposition in lakes during flooding event is likely due to detrital material brought and deposited by the flood activity. Overall our results suggest that lacustrine sediments are sensitive to the extreme event and would be an ideal archive for the reconstruction of flood events.

    • The PMIP3 Simulated Climate Changes over Arid Central Asia during the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum

      2020, 94(3):725-742. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14542

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      摘要:In this study, the climate changes over Arid Central Asia (ACA) during the mid-Holocene (approximately 6,000 calendar years ago, MH) and the Last Glacial Maximum (approximately 21,000 calendar years ago, LGM) were investigated using multimodel simulations derived from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3). During the MH, the multimodel median (MMM) shows that in the core region of ACA, the regionally averaged annual surface air temperature (SAT) decreases by 0.13°C and annual precipitation decreases by 3.45%, compared with the preindustrial (PI) climate. The MMM of the SAT increases by 1.67/0.13°C in summer/autumn, whereas it decreases by 1.23/1.11°C in spring/winter. The amplitude of the seasonal cycles of the SAT increases over ACA due to different MH orbital parameters. For precipitation, the regionally averaged MMM decreases by 5.77%/5.69%/0.39%/5.24% in spring/summer/autumn/winter, respectively. Based on the analysis of the aridity index (AI), compared with the PI, a drier climate appears in southern Central Asia and western Xinjiang due to decreasing precipitation. During the LGM, the MMM shows that the regionally averaged SAT decreases by 5.04/4.36/4.70/5.12/5.88°C and precipitation decreases by 27.78%/ 28.16%/31.56%/27.74%/23.29% annually and in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Robust drying occurs throughout almost the whole core area. Decreasing precipitation plays a dominant role in shaping the drier conditions, whereas strong cooling plays a secondary but opposite role. In response to the LGM external forcings, over Central Asia and Xinjiang, the seasonal cycle of precipitation has a smaller amplitude compared with that under the PI climate. In the model-data comparison, the simulated MH moisture changes over ACA are to some extent consistent with the reconstructions, further confirming that drier conditions occurred during that period than during the PI.

    • The Petrological and Geochemical Evolution of Ediacaran Rare-Metal Bearing A-type Granites from the Jabal Aja Complex, Northern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

      2020, 94(3):743-762. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.13825

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      摘要:New fieldwork, mineralogical and geochemical data and interpretations are presented for the rare-metal bearing A-type granites of the Aja intrusive complex (AIC) in the northern segment of the Arabian Shield. This complex is characterized by discontinuous ring-shaped outcrops cut by later faulting. The A-type rocks of the AIC are late Neoproterozoic post-collisional granites, including alkali feldspar granite, alkaline granite and peralkaline granite. They represent the outer zones of the AIC, surrounding a core of older rocks including monzogranite, syenogranite and granophyre granite. The sharp contacts between A-type granites of the outer zone and the different granitic rocks of the inner zone suggest that the AIC was emplaced as different phases over a time interval, following complete crystallization of earlier batches. The A-type granites represent the late intrusive phases of the AIC, which were emplaced during tectonic extension, as shown by the emplacement of dykes synchronous with the granite emplacement and the presence of cataclastic features. The A-type granites consist of K-feldspars, quartz, albite, amphiboles and sodic pyroxene with a wide variety of accessory minerals, including Fe-Ti oxides, zircon, allanite, fluorite, monazite, titanite, apatite, columbite, xenotime and epidote. They are highly evolved (71.3–75.8 wt% SiO2) and display the typical geochemical characteristics of post-collisional, within-plate granites. They are rare-metal granites enriched in total alkalis, Nb, Zr, Y, Ga, Ta, REE with low CaO, MgO, Ba, and Sr. Eu-negative anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.17–0.37) of the A-type granites reflect extreme magmatic fractionation and perhaps the effects of late fluid-rock interactions. The chemical characteristics indicate that the A-type granites of the AIC represent products of extreme fractional crystallization involving alkali feldspar, quartz and, to a lesser extent, ferromagnesian minerals. The parent magma was derived from the partial melting of a juvenile crustal protolith with a mantle contribution. Accumulation of residual volatile-rich melt and exsolved fluids in the late stage of the magma evolution produced pegmatite and quartz veins that cut the peripheries of the AIC. Post-magmatic alteration related to the final stages of the evolution of the A-type granitic magma, indicated by alterations of sodic amphibole and sodic pyroxene, hematitization and partial albitization.

    • Origin and Petrogenetic Implications of Spessartine Garnet in Highly-Fractionated Granite from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

      2020, 94(3):763-776. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.13883

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      摘要:A highly-fractionated garnet-bearing muscovite granite represents the marginal granitic facies of the Abu-Diab multiphase pluton in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. New electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from garnets are reported, in order to constrain their origin and genesis. Garnet in the Abu-Diab host granite is euhedral to subhedral, generally homogeneous and, in rare cases, it shows weak zonation. The garnet contains appreciable amounts of MnO and FeO, with lesser amounts of MgO and CaO, yielding an end-member formula of Sps61–72Alm25–35Prp1–4Adr0–1. Moreover, it is depleted in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) with lower values of Ba, Nb and Sr relative to the primitive mantle. Additionally, it contains high concentrations of HREE and Y and their REE pattern shows strong negative Eu anomalies. The garnet was crystallized under relatively low temperature (646°C–591°C) and pressure (< 3 kbar) conditions. The textural and chemical features indicate that the garnet is magmatic in origin and is chemically similar to that from highly-fractionated A-type granite. It was probably formed at the expense of biotite in a highly-evolved MnO-rich magma and/or by hydroxyl complexing of Mn during the ascending fluid phases.

    • Geochemical Aspects of Hypogene Hydrothermal Alteration Zones in the Chol-qeshlaghi Area, NW Iran: Constrains on REEs

      2020, 94(3):777-788. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.13885

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      摘要:Chol-qeshlaghi altered area lies in the northwestern part of the post-collisional Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, NW Iran. Pervasive silicic, argillic, phyllic and propylitic altered zones appears to be intimately affiliated to the fluids derivative of upper Oligocene Khankandi granodiorite. This paper is dedicated to the identification of geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal alterations, focusing on the determination of the mass gains and losses of REEs, to gain significant insights regarding the chemical exchanges prevailed between the host rocks and hydrothermal fluids. The low pH and high activity of SO4-2 ligands in silicic alteration fluids, resulting in depletion of entire REEs. Decreasing of LREEs appeared in argillic zone may attributed to reduce in adsorption ability of clay minerals in low pH; whereas HREEs enrichment in phyllic zone was inclined to put it down to the abundance of sericite (± Fe oxides). A significant reduction of Eu/Eu* ratio in silicic zone can be attributed to negligible sulfides and clay minerals as some effective agents in adsorption of released Eu+2. Factors such as changes in pH, the abundance of absorptive neomorph mineral phases, activity of ligands play an important role in controlling the distribution and concentration of REEs in Chol-qeshlaghi alteration system.

    • Timing and Processes of Ore Formation in the Qingchengzi Polymetallic Orefield, Northeast China: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology

      2020, 94(3):789-800. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14370

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      摘要:The Qingchengzi orefield is a large polymetallic ore concentration area in the Liaodong peninsula, northeastern China, that includes twelve Pb-Zn deposits and five Au-Ag deposits along its periphery. The ore-forming age remains much disputed, which prevents the identification of the relationship between the mineralization and the associated magmatism. In this paper, we quantitatively present the feasibility of making ore mineral 40Ar/39Ar dating and report reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages of lamprophyre groundmass, K-feldspar and sphalerite from the Zhenzigou deposit. Direct and indirect methods are applied to constrain the timing of mineralization, which plays a vital role in discussing the contribution of multistage magmatism to ore formation. The low-potassium sphalerite yielded an inverse isochron age of 232.8±41.5 Ma, which features a relatively large uncertainty. Two lamprophyre groundmasses got reliable inverse isochron ages of 193.2±1.3 Ma and 152.3±1.5 Ma, respectively. K-feldspar yielded a precise inverse isochron age of 134.9±0.9 Ma. These four ages indicate that the mineralization is closely associated with Mesozoic magmatism. Consequently, regarding the cooling age of the earliest Mesozoic Shuangdinggou intrusion (224.2±1.2 Ma) as the initial time of mineralization, we can further constrain the age of the sphalerite to 224–191 Ma. These new and existing geochronological data, combined with the interaction cutting or symbiotic relationship between the lamprophyre veins and ore veins, suggest that the Pb-Zn-Au-Ag mineralization in the Qingchengzi orefield mainly occurred during three periods: the late Triassic (ca. 224–193 Ma), the late Jurassic (ca. 167–152 Ma) and the early Cretaceous (ca. 138–134 Ma). This polymetallic deposits are shown to have been formed during multiple events coinciding with periods of the Mesozoic magmatic activity. In contrast, the Proterozoic magmatism and submarine exhalative and hydrothermal sedimentation in the Liaolaomo paleorift served mainly to transport and concentrate the ore-forming substances at the Liaohe Group with no associated Pb-Zn-Au-Ag mineralization.

    • Evaporation Stage of Paleo-saline Lake in the Sichuan Basin, China: Insight from Fluid inclusions in Halite

      2020, 94(3):801-808. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14398

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      摘要:Sichuan Basin is one of the most important marine–salt forming basins in China. The Simian and Triassic have a large number of evaporites. The Triassic strata have found a large amount of polyhalite and potassium-rich brine. However, no soluble potassium salt deposit were found. In this study, the halite in well Changping 3 which is located at the eastern part of the Sichuan basin was studied using the characteristics, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of the fluid inclusion in halite to reconstruct the paleoenvironment. The salt rocks in well Changping 3 can be divided into two types: grey salt rock and orange salt rock. The result shows that the isotopic composition of the halite fluid inclusion is distinct from the global precipitation line reflecting that the salt formation process is under strong evaporation conditions and the climate is extremely dry. At the same time, compared with the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of brine in the Sichuan Basin and the hydrous isotope composition of the inclusions in the salt inclusions of other areas in China, it is shown that the evaporation depth of the ancient seawater in the Sichuan Basin was high and reached the precipitation of potassium and magnesium stage.

    • Geochemical and Geological Characterization of Marine-Continental Transitional Shale: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin, NW China

      2020, 94(3):809-821. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.13888

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      摘要:The organic-rich shale of the Shanxi and Taiyuan Formation of the Lower Permian deposited in a marine-continental transitional environment are well developed in the Ordos Basin, NW China, which is considered to contain a large amount of shale hydrocarbon resources. This study takes the Lower Permian Shanxi and Taiyuan shale collected from well SL# in the Ordos Basin, NW China as an example to characterize the transitional shale reservoir. Based on organic geochemistry data, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations, the desorbed gas contents of this transitional shale were systematically studied and the shale gas potential was investigated. The results indicate that the Lower Permian Shanxi and Taiyuan shale has a relatively high total organic carbon (TOC) (average TOC of 4.9%) and contains type III kerogen with a high mature to over mature status. XRD analyses show that an important characteristic of the shale is that clay and brittle minerals of detrital origin comprise the major mineral composition of the marine-continental transitional shale samples, while the percentages of carbonate minerals, pyrite and siderite are relatively small. FE-SEM observations reveal that the mineral matrix pores are the most abundant in the Lower Permian shale samples, while organic matter (OM) pores are rarely developed. Experimental analysis suggests that the mineral compositions mainly govern the macropore development in the marine-continental transitional shale, and mineral matrix pores and microfractures are considered to provide space for gas storage and migration. In addition, the desorption experiments demonstrated that the marine-continental transitional shale in the Ordos Basin has a significantly potential for shale gas exploration, ranging from 0.53 to 2.86 m3/t with an average value of 1.25m3/t, which is in close proximity to those of terrestrial shale (1.29 m3/t) and marine shale (1.28 m3/t). In summary, these results demonstrated that the Lower Permian marine-continental transitional shale in the Ordos Basin has a significantly potential for shale gas exploration.

    • Rapid Determination of Complete Distribution of Pore and Throat in Tight Oil Sandstone of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, China

      2020, 94(3):822-830. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.13881

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      摘要:This study aimed to investigate the complete distribution of reservoir space in tight oil sandstone combining casting slices, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), the pore-throat theory model, high-resolution image processing, mathematical statistics, and other technical means. Results of reservoir samples from the Xin’anbian area of Ordos Basin showed that the total pore radius curve of the tight oil sandstone reservoir exhibited a multi-peak distribution, and the peaks appeared to be more focused on the ends of the range. This proved that pores with a radius of 1–50,000 nm provided the most significant storage space for tight oil, indicating that special attention should be paid to this range of the pore size distribution. Meanwhile, the complete throat radius curve of the tight oil sandstone reservoir exhibited a multi-peak distribution. However, the peak values were distributed throughout the scales. This confirmed that the throat radius in the tight oil sandstone reservoir was not only in the range of hundreds of nanometers but was also widely distributed in the scale approximately equal to the pore size. The new rapid determination method could provide a precise theoretical basis for the comprehensive evaluation, exploration, and development of a tight oil sandstone reservoir.

    • Fluid Property Discrimination in Dolostone Reservoirs Using Well Logs

      2020, 94(3):831-846. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14526

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      摘要:The Ordovician Majiagou Formation is one of the main gas-producing strata in the Ordos Basin, China. The identification of hydrocarbon-bearing intervals via conventional well logs is a challenging task. This study describes the litholog of Ma 5 (Member 5 of Majiagou Formation) dolostones, and then analyzes the responses of various conventional well logs to the presences of natural gas. The lithology of the gas bearing layers is dominantly of the dolomicrite to fine to medium crystalline dolomite. Natural gas can be produced from the low resistivity layers, and the dry layers are characterized by high resistivities. Neutron-density crossovers are not sensitive to the presences of natural gas. In addition, there are no significant increases in sonic transit times in natural gas bearing layers. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) logs, DSI (Dipole Sonic Imager) logs and borehole image logs (XRMI) are introduced to discriminate the fluid property in Majiagou dolostone reservoirs. The gas bearing intervals have broad NMR T2 (transverse relaxation time) spectrum with tail distributions as well as large T2gm (T2 logarithmic mean values) values, and the T2 spectrum commonly display poly-modal behaviors. In contrast, the dry layers and water layers have low T2gm values and very narrow T2 spectrum without tails. The gas bearing layers are characterized by low Vp/Vs ratios, low Poisson’s ratios and low P-wave impedances, therefore the fluid property can be discriminated using DSI logs, and the interpretation results show good matches with the gas test data. The apparent formation water resistivity (AFWR) spectrum can be derived from XRMI image logs by using the Archie’s formula in the flushed zone. The gas bearing layers have broad apparent formation water resistivity spectrum and tail distributions compared with the dry and water layers, and also the interpretation results from the image logs exhibit good agreement with the gas test data. The fluid property in Majiagou dolostone reservoirs can be discriminated through NMR logs, DSI logs and borehole image logs. This study helps establish a predictable model for fluid property in dolostones, and have implications in dolostone reservoirs with similar geological backgrounds worldwide.

    • Hydrocarbon Vertical Continuity Evaluation in the Cretaceous Reservoirs of Azadegan Oilfield, Southwest of Iran: Implications for Reservoir Geochemistry

      2020, 94(3):847-860. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.13822

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      摘要:A collection of data obtained from analytical methods in geochemistry along with the reservoir engineering and geologic data were used to investigate the reservoir continuity in the Cretaceous Fahliyan, Gadavan, Kazhdumi and Sarvak reservoirs of the super-giant Azadegan oilfield, SW Iran. The geochemical data indicate that the oil samples, with medium to high level of thermal maturity, have been generated from the anoxic marine marl/carbonate source rock(s). The Sargelu (Jurassic) and Garau (Cretaceous) formations are introduced as the main source rocks for the studied oils. The dendrogram obtained from the cluster analysis of high-resolution gas chromatography data introduces two main oil groups including Fahliyan reservoir, and Kazhdumi along with Sarvak/Gadvan reservoirs. This is confirmed by C7 Halpern star diagram, indicating that, the light oil fraction from Fahliyan reservoir is distinct from the others. Also, different pressure gradient of the Fahliyan Formation (over-pressured) relative to other reservoirs (normally-pressured) show the presence of compartments. The relation between toluene/n-heptane and n-heptane/methylcyclohexane represents the compartmentalization due to maturation/evaporative fractionation for Fahliyan and water washing for other studied reservoirs. Also, the impermeable upper part of the Fahliyan Formation and thin interbedded shaly layers in the Kazhdumi, Sarvak and Gadvan formations have controlled reservoir compartmentalization.

    • Secondary Silicates as a Barrier to Carbon Capture and Storage in Deccan Basalt

      2020, 94(3):861-876. DOI: 10.1111/1755-6724.14291

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      摘要:Investigating the immobilization of CO2, previous basalt-water-CO2 interaction studies revealed the formation of carbonates over a short period, but with the extensive formation of secondary silicates (SS). The mechanisms involved in these processes remain unresolved, so the present study was undertaken to understand secondary mineral formation mechanisms. XRPD and Rietveld refinement data for neo-formed minerals show a drastic decrease in the Ca-O bond length, with the calcite structure degenerating after 80 h (hours). However, SEM images and EDS data revealed that a longer interaction time resulted in the formation of chlorite and smectite, adjacent to basalt grains which prevent basalt-water-CO2 interaction to form carbonates, thus restricting carbonate formation. As a result of this, the CO2 mineralization rate is initially high (till 80 h), but it later reduces drastically. It is evident that, for such temperature-controlled transformations, low temperature is conducive to minimizing SS surface coating at the time of mineral carbonation.

主编 :侯增谦

主管单位 :中国科学技术协会

主办单位 :中国地质学会

创刊 :1922年

国际标准刊号 :ISSN 1000-9515

国内统一刊号 :CN 11-2001

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