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作者简介:

沈卫兵,男,1987年生。副研究员,主要从事深时环境演化及深地油气勘探研究。E-mail:swb560316@126.com。

通讯作者:

王义凤,女,1980生。高级工程师,主要从事油气地球化学与油气成藏综合研究。E-mail:yifengwang69@petrochina.com.cn。

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目录contents

    摘要

    进行塔里木盆地新元古界层序划分及区域对比,有助于盆地形成早期环境演化研究与深部油气勘探。本文以塔里木盆地西北缘为例,通过新元古界沉积特征详尽剖析,划分了地层序列,进一步结合前人成果,对盆地周缘新元古界层序地层进行了区域对比。结果表明,受塔里木新元古代裂谷盆地演化的“裂陷—裂拗转换—拗陷”三个阶段控制,盆地西北缘新元古界可划分为三个二级层序:层序Sq1形成于成冰纪早期裂陷阶段,由成冰系东巧恩布拉克组和牧羊滩组构成,分布于孤立的小型地垒-地堑盆地,主要发育冰川及浅水陆棚沉积;层序Sq2形成于成冰纪晚期—埃迪卡拉纪早期裂—拗转换阶段,由成冰系尤尔美那克组与埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组构成,因盆地连通性加强而分布范围增大,发育冰川、潮坪及浅水陆棚沉积;层序Sq3形成于埃迪卡拉纪晚期拗陷阶段,由埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组构成,地层向隆起上超且分布范围广,发育碳酸盐岩台地沉积。根据塔里木盆地新元古代沉积-构造演化背景及年代地层格架,盆地西北缘阿克苏地区新元古界三分的层序充填样式可与盆地东北缘库鲁克塔格地区、西南缘叶城地区对比,其中Sq1层序及Sq2层序底部冰川杂砾岩分别与全球成冰纪Sturtian和Marinoan冰期沉积对应。

    Abstract

    The division and regional correlation of Neoproterozoic sequence in the Tarim basin are helpful for the study of early environmental evolution and deep oil and gas exploration in the basin. Integrating results of previous studies with an analysis of the sedimentary characteristics of the Neoproterozoic successions in the Aksu area of the northwestern Tarim basin, a detailed investigation on sequence filling pattern of this area and its regional significance of sequence correlation were carried out. Associated with the three-stage evolution of the rift basin, the Neoproterozoic successions of the northwestern margin of the Tarim basin can be divided into three sedimentary sequences. During the syn-rifting stage at the early Cryogenian, Sq1, composed of glacial and shallow-water shelf deposits in the Dongqiaoenbrak Formation and the Muyangtan Formation, was formed and distributed in isolated small barrier-graben basins. During the rifting-to-depression transformation stage at the late Cryogenian-early Ediacaran period, Sq2 was formed. Due to enhanced connectivity of the rifting basin, it had larger distribution range and was composed of the Youermeinak Formation and Sugetbulak Formation, developing glacial, tidal and shallow water shelf deposits. During the depression stage at the late Ediacaran period, Sq3 was formed. It was composed of the Chigebulak Formation and developed carbonate platform deposits. According to the sedimentary-tectonic background and chronological stratigraphic framework of the Tarim basin, the Neoproterozoic sequence filling pattern in the Aksu area of the northwestern basin, characterized by three stage, can be compared with the Kuruktag area of the northeastern basin and the Yecheng area of the southwestern basin, and the diamictites at the bottom of the Sq1 and Sq2 correspond to the global Sturtian and Marinoan glaciation, respectively.

  • 塔里木盆地为前寒武纪变质基底上形成的大型海-陆相叠合盆地,发育相对完整的新元古界,保存了新元古代Rodinia超大陆裂解、冰川事件等信息(高林志等,2013; Wen et al.,2015; Wu et al.,2021),且近年来塔里木油气勘探不断向深层—超深层拓展,新元古界已成为深部战略突破的潜在层系(杨海军等,2020杨鑫等,2021)。因此,对塔里木盆地新元古代沉积地层进行系统分析,可为该区基础科学研究与生产实践提供重要支撑。

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘新元古代沉积地层发育较为齐全,上、下界线清楚(高振家等,19861993),是研究盆地新元古界的热点地区。已有成果表明,塔里木盆地西北缘新元古界碎屑岩沉积体系、碎屑岩-碳酸盐岩混合沉积体系、碳酸盐岩沉积体系共存,具有下部冰川-冰水相粗粒沉积与上部滨岸-碳酸盐岩台地相细粒沉积叠覆的特征(Turner et al.,2010石开波等,2018刘若涵等,2021;Shen et al.,2022)。虽然塔里木盆地西北缘新元古代沉积地层研究取得较大进展,但层序地层方面的针对性研究较少。王宇等(2010)将盆地西北缘新元古界划分为两个层序,但研究对象侧重于埃迪卡拉系,缺乏成冰系—埃迪卡拉系完整层序演化的认识,制约了盆地区域地层对比。此外,塔里木盆地西北缘与其他区域新元古代地质过程、层序演化存在一定差别(何碧竹等,2019杨海军等,20202021),新元古界对比关系还存在争议(姜海健等,2017李王鹏等,2022),尤其是成冰系冰碛岩作为盆地新元古界对比标志,在不同区域的划分方案及对应关系存在不确定性和多解性(高林志等,2013李王鹏等,2022)。Vandyk et al.(2019)利用沉积学方法,研究认为盆地西北缘成冰系发育1套冰碛岩层,与全球性Marinoan冰期沉积对应,但后续年代学等研究表明该区成冰系出露2套冰碛岩层,分别为全球性Sturtian和Marinoan冰期产物(吴林等,2020李王鹏等,2021;Shen et al.,2022)。相似的,传统观点认为盆地东北缘出露4套新元古代冰碛岩层,按年龄由老到新分别与国际上的Kaigas冰期、Sturtian冰期、Marinoan冰期和Gaskiers冰期沉积对应(Xu et al.,2009;高林志等,2013),而最新年龄数据表明该区Kaigas冰期沉积缺失,仅发育Sturtian冰期、Marinoan冰期和Gaskiers冰期相对应的冰碛岩层(Zhu et al.,2021)。因此,进行西北缘新元古界层序划分及完善区域地层对比方案是当前塔里木盆地新元古代地层研究亟待解决的问题。

  • 本文以塔里木盆地西北缘阿克苏地区为例,基于新元古界露头剖面(尤尔美那克剖面、磷矿沟剖面、什艾日克剖面、乌什剖面)及钻井资料(新柯地1井),从岩相特征及沉积-构造环境演化出发,进行新元古界层序地层研究,进而结合前人研究成果,开展塔里木盆地周缘新元古界地层对比,完善新元古界地层格架,以期为塔里木盆地形成早期环境演化研究及新元古界油气勘探提供帮助。

  • 1 区域地质背景

  • 塔里木盆地是塔里木板块的核心部分,介于南天山、昆仑山和阿尔金山之间(图1a)。新元古代早期,Rodinia超大陆开始裂解,塔里木板块周边出现大量的裂谷盆地(何碧竹等, 2019; Wu et al.,2021),进而向被动陆缘盆地转化,表现出“裂—拗”体系转换特征(石开波等,2018;Chen et al.,2019; Shen et al.,2022):前成冰纪—成冰纪早期裂陷发育;成冰纪晚期—埃迪卡拉纪早期裂陷向拗陷转变;埃迪卡拉纪晚期拗陷演化。塔里木盆地新元古代“裂—拗”体系转换的构造格局显示出南北分异的特征,南部、北部的裂谷盆地被中部古隆起区分隔(Wu et al.,2018;杨海军等,2021):北部裂谷盆地沿东西向贯穿克拉通北部地区,形成西北缘阿克苏和东北缘库鲁克塔格两个沉积中心,南部裂谷盆地主要为北西-南东向展布,主要发育西南缘铁克里克沉积中心(图1a)。

  • 图1 塔里木盆地西北缘阿克苏地区前寒武系分布

  • Fig.1 Geological setting of the Pre-Cambrian in the Aksu area, northwestern Tarim basin

  • (a)—塔里木盆地前寒武系露头分布区;(b)—盆地西北缘构造带及阿克苏地区地理位置;(c)—阿克苏地区新元古界分布;(d)—阿克苏地区前寒武系岩性柱状图

  • (a) —distribution of Pre-Cambrian outcrop in the basin; (b) —tectonic belt in the northwestern basin and geographical location of the Aksu area; (c) —Neoproterozoic distribution in the Aksu area; (d) —lithological column of the Pre-Cambrian in the Aksu area

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘阿克苏地区前寒武系由下部变质岩和上覆未变质沉积岩组成,前者包括变质程度较深的阿克苏群蓝片岩与变质程度较浅的西方山组砂砾岩,后者自下而上为东巧恩布拉克组砂砾岩、牧羊滩组钙质砂岩、东屋组砂砾岩、尤尔美那克组砂砾岩、苏盖特布拉克组砂岩/泥岩和奇格布拉克组碳酸盐岩(图1)。已有成果表明,阿克苏群原岩形成于新元古代早中期,为前成冰纪产物(Zhu et al.,2011; Lu et al.,2017; Xia et al.,2019),未变质沉积序列形成于成冰纪—埃迪卡拉纪(Ding et al.,2015; Zhu et al.,2017; Shen et al.,2022),而浅变质的西方山组沉积年龄存在争议。基于变质程度的差异,传统观点认为西方山组为阿克苏群蓝片岩之上形成的第一套沉积盖层(高振家,1986吴林等,2017;Zhu et al.,2021)。然而,长期的野外地质调查中,西方山组与阿克苏群的接触界线未见报道,且在西方山组中未发现阿克苏群片岩砾石,表明阿克苏群较西方山组更古老的认识可能存在问题(Lu et al.,2017)。碎屑锆石U-Pb年代学研究表明,西方山组形成于780~740 Ma,与阿克苏群原岩为准同生关系,甚至较阿克苏群原岩更古老(He et al.,2014b; Ding et al.,2015; Wu et al.,2018)。虽然西方山组的归属问题还需进一步研究,但其与上覆成冰系东巧恩布拉克组冰碛岩的不整合接触界线清晰。同时,最新年代学研究表明东巧恩布拉克组冰碛岩沉积于724 Ma之后,为Sturtian冰期沉积产物(李王鹏等,2021)。因此,根据最新国际地层划分标准,新元古代拉伸纪、成冰纪界限为720 Ma,本文将不整合下伏于成冰系东巧恩布拉克组冰碛岩的西方山组归属于前成冰系进行研究。

  • 2 盆地西北缘新元古界地层序列与沉积特征

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘新元古界大范围分布,包括前成冰系、成冰系及埃迪卡拉系三套岩石序列。本文研究剖面前成冰系为阿克苏群变质岩、西方山组砂岩;成冰系发育东巧恩布拉克组、牧羊滩组、尤尔美那克组,其中东屋组砂砾岩被剥蚀殆尽(刘若涵等,2021);埃迪卡拉系发育苏盖特布拉克组、奇格布拉克组;不同岩石序列在研究区的出露存在差异(图2)。

  • 2.1 前成冰系与成冰系界线

  • 阿克苏群变质岩片理发育,略带灰色色调(图3a),在磷矿沟剖面及什艾日克剖面、乌什剖面出露,分别与上覆成冰系、埃迪卡拉系角度不整合接触(图2)。变质岩新鲜面颜色为绿色,风化面颜色变浅,部分发红,后期暴露有一定的氧化作用(熊纪斌和王务严,1986)。西方山组仅出露于尤尔美那克剖面,未见底,与上部成冰系不整合接触。该层段以灰绿色、深灰色长石石英砂岩为主,含砂砾岩、粉砂岩夹层,岩石结构成熟度低,岩性稳定、单一(图2,图3b)。西方山组发育不完整的鲍玛层序,表现为砂岩演变为粉砂岩的正粒序层理,厚度变化较大,中部可见细砂岩组成的平行层理,偶见微细交错层理,未发现粉砂质泥岩、泥岩段,为典型的深水沉积物(吴林等,2017)。

  • 2.2 成冰系

  • 2.2.1 东巧恩布拉克组

  • 东巧恩布拉克组仅出露于尤尔美那克剖面,与下伏西方山组不整合接触(图2a),界线可见明显的冰川擦痕面,由下部杂砾岩粗粒沉积与上部含砾砂岩、砂泥岩细粒沉积组成(图2、3)。东巧恩布拉克组杂砾岩以基质支撑,填隙物多为灰绿色砂岩、细砂岩,砾石大小不一(一般为2~15 cm,部分达30 cm),分选差(图3c、d);砾石含量一般大于5%(局部超过60%),成分复杂,包括变质火成岩、石英砂岩和粉砂岩等;砾石的磨圆度整体较差,以棱角状—次圆状为主,在磨圆较好的砾石表面见磨光面,发育明显的冰川擦痕;偶见马鞍状砾石。东巧恩布拉克组含砾砂/泥岩、砂岩中可见明显的坠石(图3e、f),坠石周围粉砂岩纹层、泥岩层理出现变形特征,发育“上弯下绕”的沉积构造,指示冰川沉积。

  • 2.2.2 牧羊滩组

  • 牧羊滩组主要发育灰绿色钙质砂岩、细砂岩,与下伏东巧恩布拉克组整合接触(图2,图3h)。受长时间风化作用影响,牧羊滩组砂岩呈红色的风化漆颜色,岩性单一,碎屑矿物以石英为主,分选较好、磨圆中等(图3h)。整体而言,该岩相段下部以钙质砂岩为主,钙质含量向上减小,粒度变细,为东巧恩布拉克组冰川沉积结束后的浅水陆棚沉积。

  • 图2 塔里木盆地西北缘阿克苏地区前寒武系地层对比图(部分岩性段参考高振家等,1986邓浩博等,2019杨翰轩等,2020刘若涵等,2021;剖面位置见图1)

  • Fig.2 Neoproterozoic stratigraphic sequence and correlation in the Aksu area, northwestern Tarim basin (some lithological sections refer to Gao et al., 1986; Deng et al., 2019; Yang et al., 2020; Liu et al., 2021; section location can be seen in the Fig.1)

  • (a)—尤尔美那克剖面成冰系东巧恩布拉克组与前成冰系西方山组不整合面;(b)—磷矿沟剖面成冰系尤尔美那克组与阿克苏群变质岩不整合面;(c)—什艾日克剖面埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组与阿克苏群变质岩不整合接触;(d)—尤尔美那克剖面成冰系牧羊滩组与尤尔美那克组不整合面;(e)—磷矿沟剖面埃迪卡拉系与寒武系不整合面;(f)—什艾日克剖面苏盖特布拉克组与奇格布拉克组岩性转换面;(a~f)位置见岩性柱状图

  • (a) —unconformity between the Dongqiaoenbulak Formation and the Xifangshan Formation in the Youermeinak section; (b) —unconformity between the Youermeinak Formation and the Aksu Group in the Linkuanggou section; (c) —unconformity between the Sugetbulak Formation and the Aksu Group in the Shiriaike section; (d) —unconformity between the Muyangtan Formation and the Youermeinak Formation in the Youermeinak section; (e) —unconformity between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian in the Linkuanggou section; (f) —lithological conversion between the Sugetbulak Formation and the Chigebulak Formation in the Shiriaike section; (a) ~ (f) are seen in the lithological column

  • 2.2.3 尤尔美那克组

  • 尤尔美那克组在尤尔美那克剖面保存完好,与下伏牧羊滩组不整合接触,由下部杂砾岩及上部砂岩、粉砂岩、泥页岩组成(图2,图4a)。尤尔美那克组杂砾岩为基质支撑,填隙物多为紫红色砂岩、细砂岩。砾石无分选,不具有任何定向排列特征;砾石的成分类型多样,以砂岩为主;砾石多呈棱角状—次棱角状,以次棱角为主,偶见磨圆较好的马鞍状砾石(图4b、c);砾石大小混杂,直径1~20 cm,多见大于20 cm的大砾石。与东巧恩布拉克组冰成杂砾岩相似,该层段底部可见冰川擦痕面(图4b),为冰川沉积。尤尔美那克组上部细粒岩沉积建造中,粉砂岩、砂岩往往交替出现,构成粒序旋回形成的韵律层,顶部为泥页岩,层理发育(图4a)。值得强调的是,以往报道磷矿沟剖面未见成冰系或仅见局部薄层冰川杂砾岩。笔者通过系统的野外调查发现,该剖面不仅发育厚度较大的杂砾岩、含砾砂岩,还存在较为稳定分布的砂岩、粉砂岩及泥页岩等细粒沉积,整体超覆于阿克苏群蓝片岩之上(图4d~j)。该套沉积的岩相叠置特征与尤尔美那克剖面尤尔美那克组相近:下部杂砾岩为基质支撑,不整合覆盖于阿克苏群蓝片岩之上,砾石含量较大,砾石分选较差,磨圆以次棱角状为主,具冰川沉积特征;上部细粒沉积自下而上逐渐由砂岩向粉砂岩、泥页岩过渡,中部出现粉砂岩与泥岩互层,为冰退后的沉积产物(图4d~f)。与尤尔美那克剖面不同的是,磷矿沟剖面尤尔美那克组下部杂砾岩内部出现杂砾岩、含砾砂岩、砂岩的旋回沉积,岩相分布不稳定,可能暗示该区冰川沉积环境较动荡。

  • 图3 阿克苏地区前成冰系与成冰系下部地层沉积特征

  • Fig.3 Sedimentary characteristics of the Pre-Cryogenian and the lower Cryogenian in the Aksu area

  • (a)—阿克苏群变质岩,什艾日克剖面;(b)—西方山组砂岩;(c、d)—东巧恩布拉克组杂砾岩;(e、f)—东巧恩布拉克组含砾砂泥岩;(g)—东巧恩布拉克组底部冰川擦痕;(h)—牧羊滩组砂岩;(b~h)—尤尔美那克剖面

  • (a) —Aksu Group metamorphic rock in the Shiairike section; (b) —Xifangshan Formation sandstone; (c, d) —Dongqiaoenburak Formation diamictites; (e, f) —Dongqiaoenburak Formation sandstone and mudstone with drop stone; (g) —iced noodles on the surface of the Xifangshan Formation; (h) —Muyangtan Formation sandstone; (b~h) —Youermeinak section

  • 2.3 埃迪卡拉系

  • 2.3.1 苏盖特布拉克组

  • 苏盖特布拉克组在阿克苏地区广泛分布,在尤尔美那克剖面、磷矿沟剖面与下伏成冰系整合接触,在什日艾克剖面、乌什剖面、新柯地1井与下伏阿克苏群不整合接触。苏盖特布拉克组整体分为两段,下段主要为强氧化环境的紫红色滨岸相碎屑岩,上段为滨浅海相弱还原环境的灰绿色碳酸盐岩-细碎屑岩混合沉积(图2)。

  • 图4 阿克苏地区成冰系尤尔美那克组沉积特征

  • Fig.4 Sedimentary characteristics of the Cryogenian Youermeinak Formation in the Aksu area

  • (a)—尤尔美那克组岩相序列;(b)—底部冰川磨光面;(c)—冰川杂砾岩;(d)—尤尔美那克组岩相序列;(e)—泥页岩;(f)—杂砾岩与阿克苏群接触面;(g~j)—含砾砂岩;(a~c)—尤尔美那克剖面;(d~j)—磷矿沟剖面

  • (a) —lithological sequence of the Youermeinak Formation; (b) —iced noodles; (c) —glacial diamictites; (d) —lithological sequence of the Youermeinak Formation; (e) —mudstone and shale; (f) —unconformity between glacial diamictites and the Aksu Group; (g~j) —sandstone/mudstone with lonestones; (a~c) —Youermeinak section; (d~j) —Linkuanggou section

  • 苏盖特布拉克组下段主要发育紫红色、褐红色薄层状粗—细砂岩夹泥页岩,局部分布暗紫红色砾岩及灰绿色火山岩夹层,火山岩为侵入辉绿岩或喷出玄武岩还存在争议(Xu et al.,2009; Xie et al.,2022)。苏盖特布拉克组下段包括2个碎屑岩沉积旋回,均呈现出砾岩—含砾砂岩—砂泥岩的粒序变化(图2)。第一个旋回底部为厚度近1.5 m的紫红色砾岩层,砾石占65%左右,成分主要为灰白色的石英颗粒(图5a);砾石直径大约3~5 cm不等,呈圆状,次圆状,分选好;砾石之间充填粉砂质、砂质碎屑;砾岩层向上逐渐过渡为紫红色、红灰色、黄褐色薄—中层含砾砂岩、砂岩及粉砂岩;旋回内部存在多个砂岩、泥岩交互的次级旋回(图2,图5b、c),发育大量的羽状交错层理、槽状交错层理、波痕等,指示潮坪滨岸相沉积(图5d~h)。第二个旋回底部为厚度大约1 m的砾岩层(图5a),向上变为灰绿色砂岩、泥岩,岩石粒度变细,夹火山岩(图5i)。自下而上,第二个旋回岩石粒度逐渐变细,结构、成分成熟度逐渐升高,直至顶部粉砂岩、泥岩互层的出现,指示浅水陆棚沉积环境(图2)。苏盖特布拉克组上段的下部主要为黄绿色、灰绿色含砾砂岩、细砂岩、粉砂岩及钙质粉砂岩、钙质泥岩,发育火山岩(图5j)。该层段砂岩厚度较小,多与粉砂岩、泥岩互层。上段的上部主要发育灰绿色、灰黑色碳酸盐岩及细碎屑岩,包括泥晶灰岩、泥质白云岩等(图2),多出现钙质砂岩、泥岩、碳酸盐岩互层(5k、l),可见风暴沉积、波痕与交错层理(图5m~o)。整体上,苏盖特布拉克组上段自下而上泥质递减、碳酸盐或钙质组分增加,逐渐由薄层砾岩变化为砂岩、粉砂岩、钙质泥质、碳酸盐岩,发育波痕、斜层理等,属于碎屑岩-碳酸盐岩混积坪沉积环境。

  • 2.3.2 奇格布拉克组

  • 奇格布拉克组为一套稳定分布的海相碳酸盐岩地层,主要由浅灰色、灰色中—厚层块状叠层石白云岩、颗粒白云岩、角砾白云岩等构成,局部发育砂泥岩,与下部苏盖特布拉克组平行不整合接触(图2)。奇格布拉克组底部发育叠层石白云岩、灰白色泥晶灰岩,向上过渡为灰绿色/黄绿色粉砂岩、泥岩,上部发育丘状白云岩、颗粒白云岩,顶部发育角砾白云岩(图6a~f)。其中,角砾白云岩溶蚀孔洞发育,为一套岩溶储集体,可能为埃迪卡拉纪末期“柯坪运动”影响下地层风化淋滤所致(邬光辉等,2012)。奇格布拉克组内部叠层石白云岩、颗粒白云岩代表沉积水体较为动荡,可能存在波浪、潮汐作用等,为碳酸盐岩台地缓坡沉积产物。

  • 2.4 新元古界与寒武系界线

  • 埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组与上覆寒武系玉尔吐斯组角度不整合接触,局部可见冲刷面,该界线在不同剖面均明显出露(图2)。玉尔吐斯组可分为三段:下部黑色层状硅质岩层段(图6g),发育大量弱定向排列的磷质结核;中部黑色硅磷质条带—黑色页岩段(图6h),发育重晶石结核;上部白云岩夹(钙质)泥岩、粉砂岩段,白云岩以中薄层为主,偶见磷质结核及生物碎屑。整体岩相特征表明,玉尔吐斯组主体为内陆架至潮下环境的沉积产物。

  • 3 盆地西北缘新元古界不整合面及层序地层

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘新元古界不整合面、岩性转换面构成的层序界面清晰,不同时期地层充填序列存在明显差异。

  • 3.1 主要不整合面

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘新元古代构造环境经历裂谷盆地“裂陷期、裂—拗转换期、拗陷期”三阶段演化(Shen et al.,2022),控制了研究区两个一级不整合面及两个二级不整合面的形成(图2)。

  • 伴随新元古代早期Rodinia超大陆解体,塔里木盆地西北缘经历强烈的拉张裂陷(何碧竹等,2019;Shen et al.,2022),裂谷盆地开启,在变质基底之上沉积了一套盖层,形成一级不整合界面(Td;姜海健等,2017)。Td不整合在阿克苏地区表现为尤尔美那克剖面、磷矿沟剖面变质基底之上覆盖成冰系冰川杂砾岩,什艾日克剖面、乌什剖面、新柯地1井变质基底之上覆盖埃迪卡拉系滨岸砂砾岩(图2)。新元古代末期,塔里木盆地西北缘发生区域性构造抬升事件(柯坪运动;Wu et al.,2012),大部分区域埃迪卡拉系隆升而风化剥蚀,进而寒武系大规模超覆,形成一级不整合界面(T0;姜海健等,2017),标志着裂谷盆地的消亡。T0不整合在阿克苏地区表现为埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组和寒武系玉尔吐斯组之间的区域角度不整合(图2)。比如,磷矿沟剖面埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组顶部岩溶角砾岩及冲刷面,为T0形成时地层隆升、风化淋滤的典型地质记录(图6f)。

  • 图5 阿克苏地区埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组沉积特征

  • Fig.5 Sedimentary characteristics of the Ediacaran Sugetbrak Formation in the Aksu area

  • (a)—砾岩层;(b、c)—下段砂岩与泥岩互层;(d)—下段槽状交错层理;(e)—下段干涉波痕;(b~e)—什艾日克剖面;(f)—下段斜层理,磷矿沟剖面;(g)—下段砂岩透镜体,尤尔美那克剖面;(h)—下段羽状交错层理,什艾日克剖面;(i)—下段辉绿岩,磷矿沟剖面;(j)—上段辉绿岩,尤尔美那克剖面;(k)—上段砂岩、泥岩互层;(l)—碳酸盐岩;(m)—风暴岩;(n)—上段斜层理;(o)—上段波痕;(k~o)—磷矿沟剖面

  • (a) —conglomerate layer; (b, c) —sandstone and mudstone interbed in the lower part; (d) —trough cross bedding in the lower part; (e) —interference ripple in the lower part; (b~e) —the Shiairike section; (f) —oblique bedding in the lower part, Linkuanggou section; (g) —sandstone lens in the lower part, Youermeinak section; (h) —herringbone cross bedding in the lower part, Shiairike section; (i) —diabase in the lower part, Linkuanggou section; (j) —diabase in the upper part, Youermeinake section; (k) —sandstone and mudstone interbed in the upper part; (l) —carbonate in the upper part; (m) —tempestite in the upper part; (n) —oblique bedding in the upper part; (o) —ripple in the upper par; (k~o) —Linkuanggou section

  • 图6 阿克苏地区埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组与寒武系玉尔吐斯组沉积特征

  • Fig.6 Sedimentary characteristics of the Ediacaran Chigebrak Formation and Cambrian Yuertusi Formation in the Aksu area

  • (a、b)—叠层石白云岩;(c)—丘状白云岩;(d)—叠层石白云岩韵律层;(e)—藻白云岩;(f)—角砾白云岩;(g)—硅质岩;(h)—黑色页岩;(a~f)—磷矿沟剖面奇格布拉克组;(g、h)—磷矿沟剖面玉尔吐斯组

  • (a, b) —stromatolite dolomite; (c) —hillock dolomite; (d) —stromatolite dcyclothem; (e) —algal dolomite; (f) —breccia dolomite; (g) —siliceous rock; (h) —black shale; (a~f) —the Chigebrak Formation in the Linkuanggou section; (g, h) —Yuertusi Formation in the Linkuanggou section

  • Td、T0一级不整合面限定的构造层内部,发育两个二级不整合面——T1和T2界面(图2)。成冰纪中晚期,塔里木盆地西北缘发生一次构造抬升(Xu et al.,2013;石开波等,2018),裂陷盆地向拗陷盆地转换,形成T2界面(姜海健等,2017;Shen et al.,2022)。T2在阿克苏地区主要出露于尤尔美那克剖面等,表现为成冰系牧羊滩组与尤尔美那克组的角度不整合接触(图2d)。埃迪卡拉系中晚期,盆地西北缘进入陆内拗陷演化阶段,以热沉降占主导,裂谷盆地由成熟向消亡转变(石开波等,2018;Shen et al.,2022),形成T1界面(姜海健等,2017;Shen et al.,2022)。T1在阿克苏地区并非明显的暴露面或侵蚀面,而为地层接触关系较为平整、横向连续性较好的岩性突变面,表现为尤尔美那克剖面、磷矿沟剖面、什艾日克剖面、乌什剖面、新柯地1井埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组碎屑岩主导的粗粒沉积与奇格布拉克组碳酸盐岩主导的化学沉积平行不整合接触(图2)。

  • 3.2 层序地层划分

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘Td、T0不整合面将新元古界线定为一个完整的一级构造层序,T1、T2不整合面进一步将构造层序划分为三个二级沉积层序:Sq1、Sq2、Sq3(图7)。

  • Sq1层序底界、顶界分别为Td、T2不整合面,由成冰系东巧恩布拉克组冰川沉积和牧羊滩组浅水陆棚砂岩构成(图7)。该层序低位体系域为东巧恩布拉克组冰川沉积:东巧恩布拉克组下部冰成杂砾岩与下伏西方山组接触带可见不整合侵蚀痕迹,表明冰期海平面下降、新的层序开始形成;东巧恩布拉克组上部冰水相含砾砂岩、泥岩等,与下部杂砾岩、砂泥比明显降低,反映冰退水体逐渐上升的趋势,可归为低位体系域。该层序海进体系域、高位体系域为牧羊滩组构成:牧羊滩组下部以钙质粉砂岩为主,这类细粒沉积反映沉积速率较慢,且钙质颗粒的出现说明气候变暖,风化作用变强,海平面迅速上升,代表海侵体系域;牧羊滩组上部相变为具层理的砂岩旋回,钙质含量变少,代表水体进一步加深,呈现高位体系域的沉积特征。值得强调的是,牧羊滩组不存在明显的岩性界线,海进体系域与高位体系域界面不明显,两者的区别主要体现为碎屑岩钙质含量的变化。

  • Sq2层序底界、顶界分别为T2不整合面与T1岩性转换面,由成冰系尤尔美那克组与埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组构成(图7)。该层序低位体系域为尤尔美那克组下部冰川杂砾岩段,反映沉积水体较浅,且逐渐向紫红色含砾砂岩转化,反映沉积水体加深。尤尔美那克组上部砂岩层经砂/泥岩互层向稳定的泥页岩过渡,代表沉积水体加深、可容纳空间增大的海平面变化趋势,可作为海进体系域的证据。苏盖特布拉克组除局部砾岩与碳酸盐岩夹层外,整体以砂泥岩互层为特征,岩石粒度明显较尤尔美那克组上部砂泥岩粗,形成顶积沉积类型,尤其是中部浅水陆棚相层理发育的粉砂岩-泥岩沉积旋回相变为上部混合坪砂泥岩-碳酸盐岩互层,代表高位体系域的沉积特征。

  • Sq3层序底界、顶界分别为T1岩性转换面与T0不整合面,由埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组碳酸盐岩构成(图7)。相较于苏盖特布拉克组滨浅海碎屑岩为主导的沉积体系,奇格布拉克组以稳定分布的台地相碳酸盐岩沉积为特征,存在明显的岩性变化,反映新层序的形成。奇格布拉克组底部发育叠层石白云岩、藻白云岩,反映水体较浅,为低位体系域沉积特征;奇格布拉克组中部白云岩泥质含量较大,发育泥岩及钙质泥岩夹层,反映沉积速率较低,沉积水体较深的环境,构成了该层序的海进体系域;奇格布拉克组上部发育颗粒白云岩、角砾白云岩,沉积粒度变粗,反映沉积水体变浅,指示了高位体系域阶段的相对海平面变化。

  • 综上所述,根据塔里木盆地西北缘新元古代裂谷盆地演化的“裂陷—裂拗转换—拗陷”三个阶段,研究区新元古界可划分为三个二级层序:层序Sq1形成于成冰纪早期裂陷阶段,由成冰系东巧恩布拉克组和牧羊滩组构成,分布于孤立的小型地堑盆地,主要发育冰川、浅水陆棚沉积;层序Sq2形成于成冰纪晚期—埃迪卡拉纪早期裂—拗转换阶段,由成冰系尤尔美那克组与埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组构成,因盆地连通性加强而分布范围增大,发育冰川、潮坪及浅水陆棚沉积;层序Sq3形成于埃迪卡拉纪晚期拗陷阶段,由埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组构成,地层向隆起上超且分布范围广,发育碳酸盐岩台地沉积。

  • 4 盆地周缘新元古界层序地层对比

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘新元古代裂谷盆地三阶段构造演化特征具有盆地尺度意义(姜海健等,2017石开波等,2018杨鑫等,2021),三分的层序充填样式可与盆地东北缘(何金友等,2007)、西南缘(姜海健等,2017;Chen et al.,2019)进行对比(图8)。

  • 图7 阿克苏地区新元古界地层序列及沉积-构造环境演化

  • Fig.7 Stratigraphic sequence and sedimentary-tectonic evolution during the Neoproterozoic, Aksu area

  • (a)—层序Sq2下部野外露头及地质结构;(b)—层序Sq2上部野外露头及地质结构;(c)—层序Sq2—Sq3界线野外露头及地质结构;(a~c)—磷矿沟剖面,位置见岩性柱状图

  • (a) —outcrop and geological structure of the lower part of sequence Sq2; (b) —outcrop and geological structure of the upper part of sequence Sq2; (c) —outcrop and geological structure of the boundary between the sequence Sq2 and Sq3; (a~c) —the Linkuanggou section and their location can be seen in the lithological column

  • 4.1 Sq1:裂谷盆地裂陷期

  • 成冰纪早期,受Rodinia超大陆裂解影响,塔里木周缘强烈拉张裂陷,形成系列地堑-地垒裂谷盆地(石开波等,2018何碧竹等,2019)。盆地裂陷期起始表现为东北缘760~710 Ma的板内双峰式火山岩及基性岩墙(Xu et al.,2005)等,以东北缘、西北缘、西南缘前成冰系变质基底与贝义西组、东巧恩布拉克组、牙拉古孜组之间的区域性Td不整合面为特征(图8;姜海健等,2017石开波等,2018;Shen et al.,2022)。裂陷期终结表现为成冰纪中晚期的构造抬升(Xu et al.,2013;石开波等,2018),以东北缘照壁山组—阿勒通沟组、西北缘牧羊滩组—尤尔美那克组、西南缘克里西组——雨塘组之间的T2平行/角度不整合为特征(图8;周肖贝等,2012石开波等,2018;Shen et al.,2022)。

  • 裂陷演化时期,Td和T2不整合面限定二级层序Sq1,在盆地西北缘、东北缘、西南缘分别由成冰系东巧恩布拉克组—牧羊滩组、贝义西组—照壁山组、牙拉古孜组—波龙组—克里西组构成(图8)。盆地周缘Sq1下部为一套快速充填的火成岩、冰成砂砾岩混合体系,向上逐渐变为粉砂岩、泥岩等,进而以相对较粗的砂岩结束,表现为一个完整的海平面升降过程。值得强调的是,不同区域均发育一套冰碛岩层,具有很好的对比关系(图8):西北缘东巧恩布拉克组冰碛岩中,获取的最小碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄为719 Ma(李王鹏等,2021),其上覆牧羊滩组碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄为662 Ma(吴林等,2020),表明东巧恩布拉克组与Sturtian冰期沉积对应(Shen et al.,2022)。传统观点认为贝义西组冰碛岩为Sturtian冰期之前的Kaigas冰期产物(Xu et al.,2009),但最新研究成果表明,贝义西组沉积年龄介于725~698 Ma,冰碛岩的碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄约为720 Ma,限定库鲁克塔格地区这套最早的冰碛岩与成冰纪Sturtian冰期沉积对应(Zhu et al.,2021)。尽管盆地西南缘火山岩欠缺,但碎屑锆石年龄显示波龙组冰碛岩底界年龄<725 Ma,也与成冰纪Sturtian冰期沉积对应(Wu et al.,2021)。

  • 图8 塔里木盆地周缘新元古界地层对比图

  • Fig.8 Stratigraphic sequence correlation of the Neoproterozoic successions in the margin of the Tarim basin

  • (a)修改自何金友等,2007;Wu et al.,2021;Zhu et al.,2021;(b)修改自宗文明等,2010石开波等,2018; 年龄数据:(1)Xu et al.,2009,(2)Zhu et al.,2021,(3)He et al.,2013a,(4)Wu et al.,2019,(5)Zhang et al.,2016,(6)Zhang et al.,2012,(7)张健等,2014,(8)Xu et al.,2013a,(9)He et al.,2014b,(10)Ding et al.,2015,(11)李王鹏,2022,(12)吴林等,2020,(13)Wen et al.,2013

  • (a) is modified from He Jinyou et al. (2007) , Wu et al. (2021) and Zhu et al. (2021) ; (b) is modified from Zong Wenming et al. (2010) and Shi Kaibo et al. (2018) ; age datas are from (1) Xu et al., 2009, (2) Zhu et al., 2021, (3) He et al., 2013a, (4) Wu et al., 2019, (5) Zhang et al., 2016, (6) Zhang et al., 2012, (7) Zhang Jian et al., 2014, (8) Xu et al., 2013a, (9) He et al., 2014b, (10) Ding et al., 2015, (11) Li Wangpeng, 2022, (12) Wu et al., 2020, (13) Wen Lin et al., 2013

  • 4.2 Sq2:裂谷盆地裂—拗体系转换期

  • 成冰纪晚期至埃迪卡拉纪早期,盆地周缘拉张作用减弱,裂谷盆地进入稳定沉降期,表现为裂陷—拗陷体系转换,火山活动减少(石开波等,2018何碧竹等,2019)。裂—拗体系转换的起始表现为成冰纪的构造抬升及T2平行/角度不整合的形成(图8;周肖贝等,2012石开波等,2018;Shen et al.,2022);裂—拗体系转换的终止以盆地的区域性热沉降及地层的区域性超覆为特征,表现为东北缘育肯沟组与水泉组、西北缘苏盖特布拉克组与奇格布拉克组、西南缘库尔卡克组与克孜苏胡木组之间的T1平行不整合,界线上下存在明显的区域岩性转换(图8;周肖贝等,2012石开波等,2018;Shen et al.,2022)。

  • 裂—拗体系转换期,T2和T1不整合面限定二级层序Sq2,在盆地西北缘、东北缘、西南缘分别由成冰系尤尔美那克组—苏盖特布拉克组、阿特通沟组—特瑞爱肯组—扎摩克提组—育肯沟组、雨塘组—库尔卡克组构成(图8)。盆地周缘Sq2均以冰川杂砾岩起始,向上演变为大套的砂岩、泥岩层,进而以碳酸盐岩与砂泥岩互层结束,表征区域性沉积水体先变深后变浅的完整海进—海退层序演化(图8)。其中,东北缘特瑞爱肯组冰碛岩碎屑锆石年龄及火山岩夹层年龄显示其形成时代约635 Ma(Xu et al.,2009; Zhu et al.,2021),对应全球性Marinoan冰期。鉴于阿勒通沟组和特瑞爱肯组之间无沉积间断,且阿勒通沟组冰碛顶部未发育盖帽碳酸盐岩,两套冰碛岩可视为一次冰川作用。阿勒通沟组—特瑞爱肯组大套冰碛岩中发育的多个混杂堆积—粉砂岩—砂岩次级旋回,可归因于Marinoan冰期内部的沉积旋回,与华南地区成冰系南沱组相似(Shen et al.,2021)。塔里木盆地西北缘尤尔美那克组冰碛岩、西南缘雨塘组冰碛岩作为各自区域Sq2层序内唯一的冰川沉积,碎屑锆石年龄分别为<685 Ma、<668 Ma,可与塔里木盆地东北缘阿勒通沟组—特瑞爱肯组大套冰碛岩直接对比,均为Marinoan冰期沉积产物(图8)。

  • 4.3 Sq3:裂谷盆地拗陷期

  • 埃迪卡拉纪晚期,盆地周缘裂谷带差异升降停止,以稳定构造背景为特征,进入拗陷热沉降演化阶段,火山活动消失(石开波等,2018何碧竹等,2019)。盆地拗陷的起始以埃迪卡拉系晚期地层的区域性超覆为特征,形成T1平行不整合;盆地拗陷期的终止受控于新元古代末期区域性构造运动(柯坪运动;邬光辉等,2012),造成整个塔里木盆地区域性抬升接受风化剥蚀,形成大面积分布的岩溶风化壳,表现为盆地东北缘汉格尔乔克组与寒武系、盆地西北缘奇格布拉克组与寒武系、西南缘克孜苏胡木组与泥盆系之间的区域性T0角度不整合(图8;周肖贝等,2012石开波等,2018;Shen et al.,2022)。

  • 拗陷演化时期,T1和T0不整合面限定二级层序Sq3,在盆地西北缘、东北缘、西南缘分别由奇格布拉克组、水泉组—汉格尔乔克组、克孜苏胡木组构成。西北缘与西南缘Sq3均以碳酸盐岩为主导,低位体系域为奇格布拉克组下部叠层石白云岩段与克孜苏胡木组含磷砂岩段,海进体系域为奇格布拉克组中部泥质白云岩与克孜苏胡木组中部粉砂岩-白云岩,高位体系域为奇格布拉克组上部颗粒白云岩段与克孜苏胡木组上部白云岩段(图8)。东北缘Sq3存在其独特性,除了下部水泉组碳酸盐岩沉积与育肯沟组碎屑岩构成明显的岩性转换面外,上部为新元古代最后一次冰川沉积,形成稍晚于591 Ma,地层序列演化过程清晰(Zhu et al.,2021;图8)。

  • 综上所述,经历塔里木裂谷盆地形成、发展和消亡的三阶段演化,盆地西北缘阿克苏地区、东北缘库鲁克塔格地区、西南缘叶城地区新元古界发育具有区域对比意义的三个二级层序,其中Sq1层序及Sq2层序底部冰川杂砾岩分别与全球成冰纪Sturtian和Marinoan冰期沉积对应。值得强调的是,前人基于地震反射特征及钻井资料显示,塔里木陆内也具有相似的成盆作用,成冰纪断陷具有清楚的垒、堑结构,埃迪卡拉纪之后以拗陷阶段的均衡沉降为主(杨鑫等,2017)。发生在晚埃迪卡拉世末的柯坪运动造成全区抬升,奠定了塔里木盆地寒武系沉积前的构造古地貌,控制了下寒武统烃源岩的形成、分布。同时,该构造抬升运动使奇格布拉克组、汉格尔乔克组白云岩及盆内同时期地层遭受风化淋滤,形成溶蚀孔洞等储集空间(吴林等,2017)。事实上,库鲁克塔格、阿克苏地区已经发现多处被沥青充填的埃迪卡拉系露头,表明新元古代沉积-构造关联下的沉积充填序列控制了油气富集储层的形成。总体而言,盆地不同演化阶段的沉积充填方式与构造变动控制了烃源岩空间分布及油气运聚过程,裂谷盆地快速充填阶段控制了成冰系烃源岩的局限分布,坳陷盆地填平补齐阶段控制了埃迪卡拉系及寒武系底部烃源岩大范围分布。深部多层系烃源岩生成的油气资源通过后期断裂垂向运移、风化不整合面横向疏导,进入埃迪卡拉系、寒武系、奥陶系碳酸盐岩缝洞型储层富集成藏(Shen et al.,2015,2018;吴林等,2017)。

  • 5 结论

  • 塔里木盆地西北缘新元古界发育成冰系东巧恩布拉克组、牧羊滩组、尤尔美那克组及埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组、奇格布拉克组,沉积环境经冰川相—滨浅海相—碳酸盐岩台地相逐渐演化。按照裂谷盆地演化的三个阶段——裂陷期、裂拗转换期和拗陷期,西北缘新元古界可分为3个二级层序:层序Sq1形成于成冰纪早期裂陷阶段,由成冰系东巧恩布拉克组和牧羊滩组构成,分布于孤立的小型地垒-地堑盆地,发育冰川相杂砾岩构成的低位体系域,向上快速演变为钙质砂岩及粉砂岩层构成的海进体系域与高位体系域;层序Sq2形成于成冰纪晚期—埃迪卡拉纪早期裂—拗转换阶段,由成冰系尤尔美那克组与埃迪卡拉系苏盖特布拉克组构成,因盆地连通性加强而分布范围较大,发育冰川杂砾岩构成的低位体系域,向上演化为砂泥岩为主的海进体系域,并以厚度较大、稳定分布的滨浅海相高位体系域结束;层序Sq3形成于埃迪卡拉纪晚期拗陷阶段,由埃迪卡拉系奇格布拉克组构成,地层向隆起上超且分布范围广,发育叠层石白云岩、泥质白云岩、颗粒白云岩构成的碳酸盐岩台地相沉积,代表了沉积水体的快速变化。根据塔里木盆地沉积-构造演化背景及年代地层格架,西北缘阿克苏地区新元古界三分的层序充填样式可与东北缘库鲁克塔格地区、西南缘叶城地区进行区域对比,尤其是Sq1层序及Sq2层序底部冰川杂砾岩分别与成冰纪全球性Sturtian和Marinoan冰期沉积对应。

  • 致谢: 感谢朱祥坤研究员和刘鹏举研究员在野外考察及行文过程中的指导,感谢旷红伟教授和柳永清研究员对本文内容提出的建设性意见!感谢匿名审稿人给出的宝贵修改意见!

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