我国“三稀”关键矿产的成矿理论与勘查研究进展
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本文为中国地质调查项目(编号DD20230229)和国家重点研发计划项目(编号2018YFC0603700)联合资助的成果


“Three- Rare” critical minerals: Metallogenic theory and exploration progress in China
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    摘要:

    “十三五”以来,我国启动了国家重点研发计划深地资源勘查开采重点专项(DREAM),在“三稀”关键矿产成矿理论与勘查研究方面取得了重要进展。具体表现为:① 通过对“三稀”矿产成矿系统深部结构、深部过程、矿产分布规律与矿体定位控制要素的整体研究,揭示了重要矿床的形成时代、成矿机制与成矿末端效应,实现重点矿集区“透明化”的勘查示范,通过增储实践,成效显著。② 创建了“五元一体”稀土成矿与勘查模型,在赣南等地区新发现陆内浅变质岩风化壳离子吸附型稀土矿,形成了以浸出相和赣南钻为核心的勘查评价技术体系,实现绿色、经济、安全、高效勘查评价和稀土找矿重大突破,赣州稀土资源储量增长显著。③ 在喜马拉雅东段扎西康-错那洞矿集区,建立伟晶岩型铍矿、矽卡岩型铍钨矿、锡石硫化物型锡钨铍矿、独立萤石矿、脉状铅锌矿“五位一体”成矿新模型,新发现祥林、日纳等大型矿床,整体达超大型规模,开辟了特提斯喜马拉雅成矿带战略新区,取得铍-钨-锡等关键矿产找矿重大突破。④ 初步建立了“多旋回深循环内外生一体化”锂能源矿产成矿理论,创新“五层楼+地下室”锂矿勘查模型,“以锂找锂”探测技术助力深部找矿。将黏土型锂资源分为火山岩和碳酸盐两种亚型,创新提出“碳酸盐黏土型锂-镓-稀土矿床”资源新类型与成矿模式,为锂资源找矿开拓重要方向。在内蒙古发现维拉斯托隐爆角砾岩型锂矿床(锂云母型),在甲基卡、大红柳滩和滇中小石桥等地区探获一批大型—超大型锂矿床,取得重要找矿突破。⑤ 系统查明扬子板块西缘铟、锗、镓、铌、稀土等“三稀”金属超常富集的成矿物质基础与成矿机制,初步建立“表生风化-沉积型三稀金属成矿体系”,构建稀散金属成矿模式与找矿模型,探明共(伴)生锗资源储量可达到大型—超大型规模。

    Abstract:

    Since 2016, China has launched the Deep Resources Exploration and Mining (DREAM) program, as a National Key Research and Development Program. The DREAM program has made significant progress in theoretical study and exploration research on the “Three- Rare” critical minerals, such as rare earth elements (REE), rare, and rare- scattered metals. Main advances included here are as following. ① Through a comprehensive study of the deep structure, deep processes, mineral distribution, and orebody localization, the DREAM has revealed metallogenetic epochs, deep mechanisms, and terminal metallogenic effects of some important “Three- Rare” critical mineral systems, leading to a “transparent” exploration and reserve estimate increase of ore- concentrated areas. ② The DREAM has established a “five- in- one” model for the REE mineralization and exploration in Gannan, Jiangxi Province, based on climate, landform, parent rocks, carrier minerals, and pH values of weathering crust. It has led to a major breakthrough in the discovery of new types of ion- adsorption REE deposits in weathered crust of low- grade metamorphic rocks in Gannan, Jiangxi, and significant reserve increase of REE deposits in South China. An exploration and evaluation technology system was developed based on the REE leaching phases and Gannan drill, which is environmentally friendly (green), economic, safe, and efficient. ③ In the Zhaxikang- Cuonadong ore- concentrated area, eastern Himalayas, a pegmatite Be, skarn Be- W, cassiterite sulfide Sn- W- Be, independent fluorite, and Pb- Zn vein “five- in- one” model was developed, leading to the discovery of large- scale deposits such as the Xianglin and Rina that overall reached super- large scale. This is a significant breakthrough in the exploration of critical minerals such as Be, W, and Sn, etc. in the Tethys- Himalayan metallogenic belt, a new strategic area for critical minerals. ④ The newly proposed “multi- cycle deep- recycle internal and external integration” metallogenic theory, “five story building+basement” exploration model, and geochemical exploration technologies, have promoted deep exploration of Li resources. The clay- type Li deposits are divided into two subtypes, such as the volcanic rock- and carbonate- subtypes, and carbonate clay- type Li- Ga- REE deposit is proposed as a new type deposit and important Li resource. A lepidolite Li deposit of Velasto cryptoexplosive breccia- type was determined in Inner Mongolia. Large to super- large Li deposits have been discovered in areas such as the Jiajika (western Sichuan), Dahongliutan (southwestern Xinjiang), and Xiaoshiqiao (central Yunnan). ⑤ The material basis and metallogenic mechanism had been systematically identified for the extraordinary enrichment of “Three- Rare” metals, such as In, Ge, Ga, Nb, and REE, in western margin of the Yangtze Block. A preliminary “epigenetic weathering- sedimentary- type three- rare metal mineral system” has been established. The newly proposed metallogenic and prospecting models for rare- scattered metals have led to discovery of associated/accompanying Ge resources with reserves reaching large to super- large scales.

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引用本文

马岩,陈宣华.2023.我国“三稀”关键矿产的成矿理论与勘查研究进展[J].地质学报,97(10):3475-3492.
MA Yan, CHEN Xuanhua.2023.“Three- Rare” critical minerals: Metallogenic theory and exploration progress in China[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica,97(10):3475-3492.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-09-21
  • 最后修改日期:2023-10-05
  • 录用日期:2023-10-08
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-10-23
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