华夏地块造山型金矿床:时空分布规律、地质-地球化学特征、成矿机制与动力学背景
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中国地质大学(武汉)地质过程与矿产资源国家重点实验室

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国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)


Spatiotemporal distribution, geological-geochemical characteristics, metallogenic mechanism and tectonic setting of orogenic gold deposits in the Cathayisa Block: A review
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State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,School of Earth Resources,Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploration of Strategic Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan

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    摘要:

    造山型金矿床具有重要的经济价值,其成矿理论研究对金矿勘查和矿床学学科发展具有重要意义。华夏地块是我国重要的钨-锡-银-铅-锌多金属成矿带,近年来在华夏地块的变质地体中发现数十处造山型金矿床和矿化点,为该区的成矿理论研究提供了新的课题。较之区域钨锡等多金属矿床的研究程度,造山型金矿床成矿作用研究明显更为薄弱,尚未进行系统的成矿作用和成因机制总结。华夏地块内发育的造山型金矿床主要包括东华夏武夷山地区的双旗山和何宝山、西华夏云开地区的河台与海南岛的抱伦等矿床。本文重点对这四个典型矿床的地质-地球化学特征、成矿时代、成矿流体和成矿物质来源等方面的已有数据和文献资料进行了系统的归纳总结,以期阐明华夏地块造山型金矿床的时空分布规律、成矿机制和地球动力学背景。研究发现,华夏地块造山型金矿床主要发育浸染状与石英-硫化物型矿化,金矿体主要赋存于前寒武纪变质地体中,受脆-韧性剪切带控制。成矿流体为H2O-CO2-NaCl±CH4±N2体系,主成矿阶段成矿温度集中于220 ~ 280℃,成矿流体可能具有变质、地幔或岩浆热液来源;流体不混溶,热液体系氧逸度升高和铋熔体捕获是金矿石沉淀的重要机制。华夏地块存在加里东期、印支期和燕山期三期造山型金成矿事件,分别对应陆内造山、古太平洋板块俯冲及后撤的地球动力学背景。

    Abstract:

    Orogenic gold deposits have important economic value, and the study of their metallogenic theory is of great significance to the development of gold exploration and economic geology. The Cathaysia Block is an important W-Sn-Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic metallogenic belt in China. In recent years, dozens of orogenic gold deposits have been discovered in the metamorphic terranes of the Cathaysia Block, which provides a new topic for the study of metallogenic theory in this area. Compared with the research on the W-Sn polymetallic deposits in the Cathaysia Block, the research on the orogenic gold deposits in the region is obviously weak, and the metallogenic mechanism has not yet been summarized. The orogenic gold deposits in the Cathaysia Block mainly include the Shuangqishan and Hebaoshan deposits in the Wuyishan area of eastern Cathaysia, the Hetai deposits in the Yunkai area of western Cathaysia, and the Baolun deposit on Hainan Island. This paper focuses on the geological-geochemical characteristics of these four typical deposits, the age of mineralization, the sources of ore-forming fluids and materials, and systematically summarizes the existing data and literature to elucidate the spatio-temporal distribution pattern, mineralization mechanism and geodynamic background of the orogenic gold deposits of the Cathaysia Block. It is found that the orogenic gold deposits in the Cathaysia Block mainly developed disseminated- and quartz-sulfide vein-type mineralization, and the gold orebodies are mianly hosted by Precambrian metamorphic rocks and controlled by brittle-ductile shear zones. The ore-forming fluids are dominated by the H2O-CO2-NaCl±CH4±N2 system, and the main mineralization stage is mainly at the temperature of 220~280°C. The mineralizing fluids may be of metamorphic, mantle or magmatic hydrothermal origin, and the fluid immiscibility, increasing oxygen fugacity and bismuth melt trapping of the hydrothermal system are the important mechanisms for the precipitation of gold ores. There are three periods of orogenic gold mineralization in the Cathaysia Block, namely the Caledonian, Indosinian and Yanshanian periods, which correspond to the geodynamic backgrounds of intracontinental orogeny, subduction and retreat of the palaeo-Pacific plate, respectively.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-09-01
  • 最后修改日期:2023-11-23
  • 录用日期:2023-11-27
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