1.MNR Key Laboratory of Metallogeny and Mineral Assessment, Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences;2.Polar Research Institute of China
Gallium and germanium as by product of other ore deposits are the dominant mineral resources in China. The types of gallium deposits are divided into gallium-bearing hydrothermal deposits, gallium-bearing bauxite deposits dominated by monohydrate bauxite ores and gallium-bearing coal deposits in China. The resources of the first two types of deposits are dominated and available. The types of germanium deposits in China are divided into germanium-bearing medium-low temperature lead-zinc deposit, germanium-bearing magmatic hydrothermal deposit, germanium-bearing sedimentary deposit, germanium-bearing organic rock deposit and germanium-bearing volcanic rock deposit. Among them, the resources of germanium-bearing medium-low temperature lead-zinc deposit and germanium-bearing organic rock deposit are dominant and available. The spatial distribution, development and utilization of gallium- and germanium-bearing ore deposits in China are mapped. There are 423 gallium-bearing orefields, in which 117 are fully utilized orefields, 112 are partly utilized orefields, 7 are closed and 187 are fully unutilized. There are 69 germanium-bearing orefields, in which 18 are fully utilized orefields, 12 are partly utilized orefields, 4 are closed and 35 are fully unutilized. In general, although gallium- and germanium-bearing de posits are widely distributed in China, they are mainly concentrated in a few metallogenic belts. Gallium-bearing ore deposits are divided into 22 metallogenic belts (regions), and germanium-bearing ore deposits are divided into 13 metallogenic belts (regions). China is the most significant producer and exporter of gallium and germanium in the world. The gallium and germanium industry is small. A large number of primary gallium and germanium products exported to western developed countries every year. But high-end gallium and germanium products are basically dependent on imports in China.