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一件张家湾巢湖龙(双孔下纲:鱼龙型超目)标本的新认识
投稿时间:2021-01-08  修订日期:2021-02-07  点此下载全文
引用本文:赵璧,邹亚锐,陈刚,李姜丽,吴奎,万珊,徐鑫磊.2022.一件张家湾巢湖龙(双孔下纲:鱼龙型超目)标本的新认识[J].地质学报,96(3):769-782.
Zhao Bi,Zou Yarui,Chen Gang,Li Jiangli,Wu Kui,Wan Shan,Xu Xinlei.2022.2022. New research progress on a specimen of Chaohusaurus zhangjiawanensis (diapsida: ichthyosauromorpha)[J].Acta Geologica Sinica,96(3):769-782.
DOI:10.19762/j.cnki.dizhixuebao.2021167
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附件
作者单位E-mail
赵璧 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034 312865130@qq.com 
邹亚锐 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034 569007425@qq.com 
陈刚 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034  
李姜丽 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034  
吴奎 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034  
万珊 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034  
徐鑫磊 湖北省地质科学研究院湖北武汉430034  
基金项目:本文为湖北省地质勘查基金项目(编号 DTCG- 190401);湖北省地质局专项(编号 KJ2018- 2,KJ2019- 1,KJ2020- 1,KJ2021- 3,MSDZ2020- 6);古生物与地质环境演化湖北省重点实验室开放研究基金课题(编号 PEL- 202004)资助成果。
中文摘要:早三叠世是鱼龙起源和早期演化的关键阶段,Chaohusaurus则是该时期化石材料最丰富、研究程度最高的鱼龙类群之一,但其标本几乎全部产自华南下扬子区的安徽巢湖,此外仅在中扬子区北部的湖北远安曾有少量发现和报道。本次对一件曾初步研究的远安Chaohusaurus zhangjiawanensis标本开展进一步修复和观察,对该属种形态信息缺失较多的头骨进行描述并重点与Ch zhangjiawanensis最早报道的两件标本及安徽研究程度较高的其他Chaohusaurus进行对比分析,以期补充完善对Ch zhangjiawanensis比较解剖和形态功能特征的认识并加强对Chaohusaurus内群演化、生活环境和活动范围等方面的了解。发现Ch zhangjiawanensis与Ch chaoxianensis、Ch brevifemoralis等安徽分子的骨骼整体比例和头骨各孔构成等特征相似,但较Ch chaoxianensis和Ch brevifemoralis上颌骨更长、附着牙齿更多且更密集强壮,外鼻孔的后置不明显,骨架更粗壮,躯干更僵硬。研究认为Ch zhangjiawanensis与安徽Chaohusaurus的骨骼形态差异可能是不同环境导致,推测其多而强壮的后部上颌牙和僵硬的躯干可能是因其以高度骨化的湖北鳄等脊椎动物为食和生活在局限、高盐度的浅海环境而发生的适应性演化,但也不能排除是继承自更古老的类群,或是其活动范围更大、食物来源更广等原因。据此分析,由于早三叠世恶劣的海洋生态环境,碎片化分布的小生态地理区可能广泛存在,使典型的游泳型生物鱼龙在起源和辐射后又在这些缺乏交流的“避难所”中分别演化并形成不同的形态属,但这也导致从特殊骨骼形态探讨早期鱼龙各类之间的演化关联及追索其共同祖先变得困难,因此尚需继续加强对已知早三叠世鱼龙化石层下部层位及相应化石产区附近同时期不同环境海相化石的追寻和分析。
中文关键词:斯帕斯亚期  巢湖龙属  头骨  比较解剖  湖北远安
 
2022. New research progress on a specimen of Chaohusaurus zhangjiawanensis (diapsida: ichthyosauromorpha)
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Zhao Bi HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China 312865130@qq.com 
Zou Yarui HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China 569007425@qq.com 
Chen Gang HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China  
Li Jiangli HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China  
Wu Kui HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China  
Wan Shan HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China  
Xu Xinlei HubeiInstitute of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430038, China  
Abstract:Chaohusaurus is a significant fossil genus with most abundant specimens and highest research level of ichthyosauromorpha in the Early Triassic, the key epoch of origin and early evolution of ichthyosaurs. However, specimens of this unique genus have only been found in limited areas, mostly in Chaohu, Anhui Province, Lower Yangtze region of South China, and a few in Yuanan, Hubei Province, northern part of the Middle Yangtze region. Based on careful restoration and observation of a reported specimen of Chaohusaurus zhangjiawanensis found in Yuanan, this study not only provides lots of cranial structure information which was largely lost in the holotype specimen, but also focuses on the comparison of the two previously reported specimens of well studied ChZhangjiawanensis and other Chaohusaurus in Anhui. The current specimen also sheds light on understanding Ch. zhangjiawanensis from comparative anatomy and functional morphology, and the ingroup evolution, ecology habitat and home range of Chaohusaurus. The result shows that, from the view of the overall proportion of skeleton and structure of cranium, Ch. zhangjiawanensisis similar to Ch. chaoxianensis and Ch. brevifemoralis found in the Anhui Province. Nevertheless, this species can be differentiated from the latter two by longer maxilla with more and stronger, densely attached teeth, inconspicuous postposition of external naris, stronger skeleton and stretch- preserved truncus. The differences in the skeletal morphology of these species may indicate different living environments. Large amounts of strong maxillary teeth and stretch- preserved truncus might be connected to its adaptive evolution which fed on highly ossified vertebrates, such as Hupehsuchia, and its living habitat in limited water with high salinity. However, it cannot be rule out that those differences could have been inherited from archaic creatures, or that they were the result of adaptive evolution towards to wider ecological habitat and more abundant food sources, or other possible reasons. In the Early Triassic, ecological environment of marine is turbulent. Dispersive ecological geographic areas (refuge) during that time may lead to the absence of gene exchange of the ichthyosaurs after its origin and early radiation, and the resulting evolution with different morphology. Further, it makes it difficult to explore the evolutionary connections of the early ichthyosaurs from the specific morphology of the skeleton. Therefore, further study on the Early Triassic ichthyosaur fossils preserved in lower beds and corresponding beds in different environments is needed.
keywords:Spathian  Chaohusaurus  cranium  comparative anatomy  Yuanan, Hubei
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