Abstract:The Songpan- Ganze orogenic belt is a super- enrichment zone of lithium- beryllium- tantalum rare elements. In view of the bottleneck of the upstream development of lithium mineral resources, we are launching a 3000 m scientific drilling project of lithium deposit in western Sichuan. The drill hole will penetrate granite and pegmatite, as well as metamorphic rocks, in order to establish a multi- disciplinary crustal “lithium column”. Key scientific issues include: “tectonic origin of granite- pegmatite- type lithium deposits”, “genetic types and properties of the granites related to the lithium deposits”, “relationship between granite and pegmatite and their differentiation processes”, “the source- migration- accumulation process of rare metals”, “the orogenic process of deformation- metamorphism- magmatism- mineralization: from heat dissipation to lithium enrichment” and “the specificity and diversity of microorganisms under rare- element- bearing extreme conditions and their relationships with depth”. The project will be able to offer the tectonic background, the restriction factor, the reference data and the scientific basis for the lithium ore exploration breakthrough, to provide the scientific symbol for the prospecting prediction target area, and to establish the innovative lithium deposit genesis theory, which has the important scientific significance and the practical value.