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塔里木新元古代原型盆地与深层油气勘探意义
投稿时间:2020-06-23  修订日期:2020-10-22  点此下载全文
引用本文:
DOI:10.19762/j.cnki.dizhixuebao.2021119
摘要点击次数: 91
全文下载次数: 135
作者单位地址
杨 鑫 中国科学院油气资源研究重点实验室 北京海淀区北四环中路267号
赵永强 中国科学院油气资源研究重点实验室 
兰明杰 中石化西北油田分公司勘探开发研究院 
杨波 浙江大学地球科学学院 
颜萍 浙江大学地球科学学院 
焦存礼 中国科学院油气资源研究重点实验室 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(编号 41802135、U19B6003-01)和国家重大专项(编号 2017ZX05005-002)
中文摘要:震旦系白云岩是当前塔里木深层油气勘探战略突破的潜在层系之一,但是受资料限制,对新元古代原型盆地和烃源岩分布仍存在较大争议。综合重磁电反演和地震解释,开展了塔里木新元古代地层分布、隆坳格局和原型盆地性质研究。地球物理位场异常和联合反演结果显示,塔西南、阿瓦提地区深层都有新元古界广泛分布。新元古代盆地呈隆-坳相间格局,塔北和中央隆起带是前寒武系继承性基底古隆起,北部裂陷带和塔西南裂陷带均以NWW向裂谷为主,纵向上呈现断-拗结构,平面上构成大型垒-堑结构,裂谷形成演化和同沉积断裂的分布与基底岩相组成以及基底断裂分布密切相关。塔里木新元古代原型盆地演化以南华纪裂谷、早震旦世断-拗转换和晚震旦世拗陷为特征,震旦纪末期柯坪运动导致短暂的地壳抬升,构造剥蚀南强北弱。在早震旦世断-拗转换过程中,由多个南华纪分散的裂谷沉降中心逐渐合拢、收缩成宽缓分布的深水凹陷区,晚震旦世伴随周缘洋盆扩张,生烃凹陷开始向大陆边缘迁移。塔西南深层古裂陷内可能发育前寒武系烃源岩,古裂陷与古隆起之间的配置关系是寒武系盐下勘探突破的关键。上震旦统台缘礁滩相和表生岩溶作用形成的规模性碳酸盐岩储集体是当前古老层系勘探的重要目标类型。
中文关键词:塔里木,深层-超深层,前寒武系,古裂陷,古老烃源岩
 
Tarim prototypic basin in Neoproterozoic and its significance for deep-ultra deep oil and gas exploration
Author NameAffiliationAddress
YANG Xin Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences 北京海淀区北四环中路267号
ZHAO Yongqiang Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences 
LAN Mingjie Exploration and Development Research Institute of Northwest Branch, SINOPEC 
YANG Bo School of Earth Science, Zhejiang University 
YAN Ping School of Earth Science, Zhejiang University 
JIAO Cunli Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences 
Abstract:The marine carbonate layers of the upper Sinian is one of the potential target types for deep and ultra-deep oil and gas exploration in Tarim basin. However, evolution of the Neoproterozoic prototype basin and the distribution of source rocks remain controversial or unconfirmed. Combined with the joint inversion of gravity, aeromagnetic and electric data, the seismic interpretation of horizons and faults were conducted to depict the framework of uplift and depression in Tarim basin from Nanhua to Sinian period. The Neoproterozoic strata were expected to be well developed in the deep of Southwest Tarim and Awati depression by the evidences from geophysical anomaly and joint inversion of non-seismic data. Furthermore, the seismic interpretation indicated that the Neoproterozoic depressions distributed around the inherited Precambrian basement paleo-uplifts, with the northern subsidence zone and the southwestern Tarim subsidence zone were dominated by the NWW stretched rifts. The rifts were characterized by lower faulted-down depression and upper intracratonic sag vertically, with large-scale horsts and grabens laterally. The formation and distribution of Neoproterozoic rift basins in Tarim were genetic close related to lithofacies composition and fault system in basement. From rift basin in Nanhua to intracratonic sag in Sinian, the sedimentary deposits in Tarim changed from clastic rocks to carbonites. The Keping Movement occurred at the end of Sinian resulted in an ephemeral crustal uplift and sedimentation ceases, with the denudation in South Tarim is stronger than North Tarim. Those scattered rifting subsidence centers formed in Nanhua gradually contracted into relative widely spread hydrocarbon generation depressions in early Sinian, and the deepwater facies for source rocks deposition became migration to the continental margin of Tarim in late Sinian. Precambrian source rocks were assumed to develop in the paleo-rifts in deep of southwest tarim, and the effective coordination between the Paleo-rifts and Paleo-uplifts were the key issue for the oil and gas exploration of dolomite rocks under Cambrian salt. The large-scale carbonate reservoirs formed in the reefs and shoals in platform margin, and epiphytic karst in the upper Sinian were important target types.
keywords:Tarim  Deep and ultra-deep layer  Precambrian  Paleo-rifts  Ancient source rocks
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