Abstract:Doushantuo Formation is the first interglacial deposited at the end of the extremely glacial event of the Cryogenian. Extensive transgression results in the development of organic rich black shale in the world, which is an important source rock for deep oil and gas exploration at present. Widely distributed of Doushantuo Formation source rocks in South China, which are affected by tectonic and sedimentary facies, resulting in great difference in spatial distribution of source rocks and strong heterogeneity, which brings risks to oil and gas exploration and prediction. On the basis of previous studies, combined with the analysis of organic geochemistry, paleontology and sedimentary geochemistry of three profiles, this study compared 10 typical profiles in South China, and found that Doushantuo Formation developed the member Ⅱ and member Ⅳ source rocks. The analysis of redox environment shows that the source rocks of member Ⅱ are formed in dysoxic environment in transgressive background, and the source rocks of member Ⅳ are formed in anoxic environment in regressive background. Multicellular algae and acritarcha are the main source materials. The comparative study shows that the platform facies mainly develops the member Ⅳ source rock (TOC average value is 3.61%), the slope facies mainly develops member Ⅱ (TOC average value is 2.20%) and member Ⅳ source rock (TOC average value is 3.66%). Based on a large number of analysis data and profile correlation, it is considered that the thickness and quality of source rock are obviously controlled by paleo-depression and redox environment. Based on the outcrop and drilling data, the thickness distribution of the source rocks in Doushantuo Formation of South China (member Ⅱ + member Ⅳ) is predicted. A favorable area for excellent source rock distribution is proposed, which provides a basis for deep oil and gas exploration and prediction of shale gas-rich areas.