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丹霞地貌定义、分类及丹霞作用研究
投稿时间:2019-09-02  修订日期:2019-11-24  点此下载全文
引用本文:
DOI:10.19762/j.cnki.dizhixuebao.2020110
摘要点击次数: 208
全文下载次数: 139
作者单位E-mail
郭福生 东华理工大学核资源与环境国家重点实验室 24173404@qq.com 
陈留勤 东华理工大学地球科学学院  
严兆彬 东华理工大学核资源与环境国家重点实验室  
刘富军 东华理工大学地球科学学院  
潘志新 海南大学  
张炜强 东华理工大学地球科学学院  
胡海平 东华理工大学地球科学学院  
基金项目:“赣粤闽地区丹霞地貌形成与演化过程中岩相控制作用研究”(41772197)、“粤北丹霞盆地晚白垩世红层的沉积特征与古气候意义”(41962009)、“中国西北部干旱区和东南部湿润区丹霞地貌发育机制的对比研究”(41761002)资助成果。
中文摘要:丹霞地貌以广东丹霞山最为典型而得名,是一种发育赤壁丹崖群的特殊地貌类型,近年来随着旅游开发不断升温而成为景观地貌学关注的重要对象,但其中一些基本问题长期争论不休。本文从命名地的地质、地貌特征和我国区域地质发展史角度出发,重新厘定了丹霞地貌的定义与分类,强调丹霞地貌的三大基本要素:赤壁丹崖地貌特征、燕山旋回以来陆相红层基础和以流水侵蚀为主的地质营力。西北地区也广泛发育丹霞地貌,一类是黄土覆盖下的古丹霞,另一类是干旱区片流侵蚀和泥乳贴膜的丹霞。丹霞作用是对中新生代陆相碎屑岩经流水侵蚀、重力崩塌和风化剥落等多种地质作用的统称,其产物就是丹霞地貌。岩性控制和崖壁片流垂蚀是丹霞作用的两种特殊机理。红层盆地的沉积相及其岩性差异控制着丹霞地貌的发育及其景观类型,据此在地貌发育的构造、外力和时间三个因素基础上增加了岩性因素。南方典型的红层盆地中,边缘冲积扇相粗碎屑岩地区可经历青年、中年和老年等发展阶段,盆地中央湖泊相泥岩、粉砂岩却没有经历过绝壁陡崖发展阶段。暴雨水流在丹霞崖壁上发生近垂直向下的侵蚀作用叫片流垂蚀作用。其中冲蚀作用形成竖状沟槽、竖状洞穴,涡蚀作用(借助风力吹动发展成垂直崖壁的涡旋)形成圆锥状洞穴、串珠状洞穴,后者使得洞穴沿软弱岩层分布,进一步扩大成扁平状洞穴。这些洞穴并非古河流侧蚀后抬升而成,其形成年代具有垂向一致性,不具有上老下新变化趋势,而在水平方向上,不同部位洞穴的形成年代可能不同。
中文关键词:丹霞地貌  丹霞作用  红层  地貌演化模式  片流垂蚀作用
 
Definition, classification, and danxianization of Danxia landscapes
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Guo Fusheng East China University of Technology 24173404@qq.com 
Chen Liuqin East China University of Technology  
Yan Zhaobin East China University of Technology  
Liu Fujun East China University of Technology  
Pan Zhixin Hainan University  
Zhang Wweiiqang East China University of Technology  
Hu Haiping East China University of Technology  
Abstract:The danxia landscape was the most representative and named at the Mt. Danxia of Guangdong Province, which is a special type of landscape characterized by red cliffs. In recent years, with the rise of tourism development, it has become an important object of landscape geomorphology research. However, some basic issues of the danxia landscape are controversial. Based on the geological, geomorphological characteristics and regional geological evolution of the named place, this paper proposes a new definition and classification of danxia landscapes with emphases on the geomorphic features of prominent red cliffs, continental red bed foundation, and water erosion since the Yanshanian cycle. Moreover, the danxia landscapes are also widespread in NW China, which can be divided into two types: (1) the early Danxia landscape covered by the Quaternary loess, and (2) another is characterized by water erosion and deposited mud films. This paper puts forward the concept of danxianization, which indicates various geological processes such as water erosion, gravity collapse and weathering spalling of the Mesozoic - Cenozoic continental clastic rocks, resulting in the formation of danxia landscapes. The danxianization includes two special mechanisms of lithofacies control and vertical overflow erosion. The differences of red beds lithofacies control the development and type of danxia landscapes. Therefore, the danxia landscape evolution model is hereby revised as the function of lithofacies, structure, external force, and time. In the typical red beds basins of South China, the alluvial fan coarse-grained rocks at the basin margin have the early, middle, and late development stages. In contrast, the mudstones and siltstones deposited in the lake facies at the central basin are thought to have not experienced the development stage of prominent cliffs. The water erosion during the torrential rain on the cliff sides along the vertical trench is called the vertical overflow erosion. As a result, the vertical grooves and cavities are formed. The vortex action is formed by rotating and drilling by means of wind to generate cone-shaped cavities, beaded tafoni, which are then coalesced laterally to form flat cavities. Thus it is proposed that the ages of the beaded cavities are vertically consistent, whereas the cavities possibly form at different ages in the horizontal direction.
keywords:danxia landscape  danxianize  red beds  landscape evolution model  vertical erosion of overflow
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